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Full text of "California Garden, Vol. 58, No.5, October-November 1967"

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FLORAL EVENTS 

OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 1967 

SAN DIEGO FLORAL ASSOCIATION PROGRAMS 
Third Tuesday, 1 :30 p.m. Floral Building, Balboa Park 

Chairman — Mrs. Eugene Cooper 

Regular Meeting, October 17, 1967, 1:30 p.m. 
Mr. John Browning, Superintendent of Gardening at Sea World and his assistant 
will bring colored slides and speak on Landscaping and Problems of Upkeep at 
Sea World, including problems of planting in salty sand. 

Regular Meeting, November 21, 1967, 1 :30 p.m. 
Mrs. J. R. Kirkpatrick, assisted by Mrs. Frances Schoeneman, will bring new 
ideas on Holiday Flower Arrangements featuring madonnas, especially those of 
Mr. Forni of Santa Rosa, who may possibly be present. 

SAN DIEGO FLORAL ASSOCIATION CLASSES, 
FLORAL BUILDING, BALBOA PARK 

For information, call Mrs. Roland Hoyt, Chairman, 296-2757 
Creative Arts Group, 10 a.m. - 2 p.m. Call Mrs. Hoyt for time of meeting, 
or Mrs. Eugene Whigham, Co-Chairman with Mrs. Hoyt for the year 1966 - 
67, 296-1251. 

Flower Arrangement Demonstration Class, 9:30 a.m. 

Last Monday of each month. Instructor: Mrs. J. R. Kirkpatrick assisted by 
Mrs. Frances Schoeneman. 



1. 



2. 



OCTOBER 

7- 8 

14-15 



20-21 



Fri. 10-5 p.m 
Sat. 1-5 p.m. 



FLOWER SHOWS 

ROSE SHOW 

Mission Inn, Riverside 
FLOWER SHOW Theme: "Wonderful World of Plants and 
Flowers" 
Auditorium, Santa Monica 

Southern California Horticultural Institute 
FALL FLOWER SHOW Theme: "Saga of Rancho Santa Fe" 
Garden Clubhouse, Rancho Santa Fe 
Rancho Santa Fe Garden Club 



2nd ANNUAL CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW AND PLANT 

SALE 

Poway Plaza 

Poway Valley Garden Club 
FALL ROSE SHOW 

The Mall, Escondido 
North County Rose Society 
FALL FLOWER SHOW 

Los Angeles State & County Arboretum, 301 N. Baldwin, 

Arcadia 

ROSE SHOW 

Rose Hills, Whittier 
8th FALL FLOWER SHOW Theme: "Holiday Treasure" 

Coronado Women's Club, 1735 Strand Way, Coronado 
Crown Garden Club 
FALL IRIS SHOW REBLOOMING IRIS 



27-28 



28-29 



28-29 



NOVEMBER 

4- 5 

11-12 
Sat. 2-8 
Sun. 10-6 

19 
Sun. 1-5 p.m. Floral Building, Balboa Park 

San Diego Imperial Counties Iris Society 

CUCAMONGA WINE DISTRICT TOUR 

On Saturday October 14, the County Civic Center Garden Club will sponsor a 
wine sampling tour into the Cucamonga wine district, benefits will go to 
California Garden magazine. Plenty of free parking is offered at the 
County Administration Center at Harbor and Grape Streets where the buses will 
leave at 8:30 a.m. Buses will have lavatories. A no-host luncheon stop will be 
made in Riverside and time will be allowed for tour members to stroll the mall 
which is featured along with other malls in the September issue of Sunset 
magazine. A charge of $6.00 includes a guided tour of the old Mission Hotel 
in Riverside. Reservation may be made by calling Mrs. Donald A. Innis 298- 
1690 or by calling San Diego Floral 232-5762 on regular hours MFW 10-3. 




You are invited to 
become a member of 



leao 



r 



Membership includes: 

• Monthly meetings featuring 
outstanding speakers 

• A monthly Sunday afternoon 
garden tour 

• Subscription to CALIFORNIA 
GARDEN bi-monthly 

• Use of a large horticultural 
library 



Fill in box with membership desired and 

mail with check to 

San Diego Floral Association 
Balboa Park, San Diego, Calif. 92101 

Classification of Memberships: 

Individual $ 5.00 □ 

Family $ 5.50 □ 

Sustaining $10.00 □ 

Contributing $25.00 □ 

Name 

Add ress 

Zip . 



The next issue of California Gar- 
den will come to you with a new editor. 

In this, the last issue under my edi- 
torship, I wish to express my deepest 
thanks to all who have contributed 
articles for publication during my edi- 
torship. It has been a pleasure to me 
to open and read your manuscripts 
with appreciation of the new contri- 
butions you have made to supplement 
what others have written before. The 
meetings with the creative minds of 
those of you who have studied your 
plants and noted and shared their ways 
of growth and behavior, is the plea- 
sure that offsets the multitudinous de- 
tails and processes in putting together 
and bringing into print a magazine. 

It has been a pleasure knowing you 
all and I hope that our paths will still 
cross even though my interest in grow- 
ing plants will be largely academic 
in the future. 

Vera Morgan, Editor 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



Among our Contributors 



Simonne Daly, became interested in 
Bonsai when she lived in Hawaii and 
visited the garden of Mr. J. Gregory 
Conway, author of Flowers East and 
West. She has had lessons from Mr. 
George Fujimoto and the late Mr. Ito, 
Senior of Leucadia. 

Shirley Hosier's interest in Bonsai 
originated during a two-year period 
while living in Japan. Both are mem- 
bers of the San Diego Bonsai Club, as 
are Mr. Shima and Mr. Jaussaud, the 
illustrators of their article. 

Lawrence Joseph Fitzgerald of the 
San Diego Schools Landscape Depart- 
ment, gives credit to Mr. Chauncy I. 
Jerabek who started him on his career. 
Field trips with Mr. Jerabek and Mr. 
Charles F. Harbison of the Natural 
History Museum have led to serious 
study and a reputation of being one of 
the most knowledgeable young men in 
San Diego on rare trees and shrubs. 

Dorothy P. Whiteside of Coronado, 
a newcomer to California, who hails 
from Norwalk, Conn., is much inter- 
ested in the mushrooming land devel- 
opment of her adopted state. Mrs. 
Whiteside, a free-lance writer, has for 
the past 20 years been editor and pub- 
lisher of house magazines for several 
New England industrial and utility 
firms. 

Gladys Rooder is a Midwesterner 
who finished her college at San Diego 
State College. She and her husband 
have their home on a hillside in Pa- 
cific Beach where they grew the Man- 
darin orange tree. She does free lance 
writing as a hobby. 

Annabelle Stubbs has changed her 
hobby, Fuchsias, into a business. Mov- 
ing to North Leucadia, she established 
a Fuchsia Nursery where she grows 
and releases the new origination of 
"FuchsiaLA" as well as others. Her 
exhibit won the Blue Ribbon at the 
Del Mar Fair, the first time that she 
had ever entered. 

Taggart Spinks is President of the 
Epiphyllum Society of America. 

Bill Van Valkenberg is a newcomer 
from the East, but he brought his in- 
terest in Spurias with him and is al- 
ready at home in the local Iris Society, 
thanks to Bill Gunther. He is enrolled 
as a student at Palomar College. 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 

KNOW GROW SHOW 



October-November, 1967 



Vol. 58 



No. 5 



THE COVER 

Suiatle River Trail through an old growth of Western Red Cedar. Proposed 
North Cascade National Park. Green Forests give us Strength. What Kind of 
Man, Felling a Giant Such as These, Would Dare to Offer to Replace It? 

Photo by David Simons 



FEATURES 

Care and Culture of Epiphyllums in the 

Inland Empire Taggart Spinks 4 

Gold in Your Garden Gladys D. Rooder 5 

An Appreciation of Alice Mary Greer and 

her Floral Association Background Alice M. Clark 6 

Mod Bonsai in a Mini-pot ^ Simonne Daly and 

Shirley Hosier 8 

200th Anniversary Celebration to be 

Centered Around Old Town Virginia M. Innis 11 

Rare Eucalyptus in Balboa Park Lawrence J. Fitzgerald 12 

Battle for Good Land Design Dorothy P. Whiteside 14 

Fuchsias of 1967 Annabelle Stubbs 18 

Farming the Sea for Water 20 

DEPARTMENTS 

Floral Association 2 

A Book in the Hand . 7 

Club Directory 31 

CALENDAR OF CARE 

Garden Care for October-November Robert H. Calvin 22 

Orchids Byron H. Geer 24 

Roses Mary Jane and 

J. Wells Hershey ..25 

Fuchsias Morrison W . Doty 26 

Dahlias Larry Sisk ..27 

Irises Bill Van Valkenberg 28 

Cactus and Succulents S.D. Cactus & Succulent Society 29 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 

Published Bi-Monthly by the SAN DIEGO FLORAL ASSOCIATION 
Floral Association Building, Balboa Park, San Diego, California 92101 

All rights reserved. 

Publication Board 

Ch. pro tern; James P. Specht; George A. LaPointe; Mrs. William Mackintosh 

Editorial Staff Business Staff 



Business Manager Rosalie F. Garcia 

Office Hours: M-W-F, 10-3 
Phone 232-5762 

Advertising 

Joan Betts, 223-7259 



Editor Vera Morgan 

Editorial Office: 9334 Carmichael Dr. 

La Mesa, California 92041 Phone:466-5090 

Contributing Editors: 

Chauncy I. Jerabek, Alice M. Rainford 
R. Mitchel Beauchamp, Helen V. Witham 

Staff Photographer 

Betty Mackintosh 

Advertising rates on request. Copy deadline, 1st day of the month preceding date of issue. 

California Garden is on the list of publications authorized by the San Diego Retail Merchants Associa- 
tion. Entered as second-class matter. Dec. 8, 1710 at the Post Office at San Diego, California under 
the Act of March 3, 1879. 



OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 1967 



SAN DIEGO 
BOTANICAL GARDENS FOUNDATION 

INC. 

needs your donations and bequests for a 

GARDEN CENTER 

IN BALBOA PARK 



San Diego 

Savings D3I1K 



Your No Service-Charge Checking Account Bank 



Patronize Our Advertisers 
That Keep California Garden Growing 




Monte Vista Lodge is planned for those who de- 
sire independent living ... for those who have re- 
tired, but not from active life. Private furnished 
apartments are supplemented by the complete ser- 
vices of the Lodge. These include maid service, 
three meals daily from a variety of menus, a com- 
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wide range of activity facilities. 
No capital investment or purchase is necessary. 
There are no entrance fees and no financial ob- 
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Lodge. Couldn't this be what you have been look- 
ing for? We invite your inquiries and/ or request 
for our descriptive brochure. 



MONTE VISTA LODGE 

2211 MASSACHUSETTS AVE. | LEMON GROVE | SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 92045 

PHONE: (714) 465-1331 



Care and Culture 
Of Epiphyllums 
In The Inland Empire 

by Taggart Spinks 



Epiphyllums, commercially known 
as Orchid Cactus can be easily raised 
in this area. They thrive on well cal- 
culated neglect and resent excesses. 
They can be easily damaged by: too 
much water, too much fertilizer, too 
much sun, too much cold (sustained 
periods under thirty one degrees). 

The plants or cuttings should be 
placed into a small pot containing a 
coarse, rapidly draining mix with a 
large proportion of rapidly drying 
humus. Peat will not do as it holds 
moisture too long and is difficult to 
moisten when dry. 

Watering practices vary according 
to the condition of the plant, pot size 
and atmospheric conditions. More 
plants die from too much water than 
any other reason. Water sparingly, 
but do not allow the lower roots to 
dry out completely. During the sum- 
mer months, misting can help maintain 
air humidity. Small pots can be watered 
more often than large pots because 
they dry more rapidly. 

Epiphyllums resent full sun or very 
dark shade. Two satisfactory locations 
would be well inside a patio overhang 
with a South or West exposure, or an 
East exposure or underneath an ever- 
green tree. A tree such as an Orange 
tree tends to humidify the air through 
leaf evaporation. 

These plants are fairly heavy feed- 
ers. However, fertilize them only 
when they are hungry; that is — when 
they are growing quite well. Fertilizer 
will not stimulate a sick plant into re- 
covery, but will probably only further 
damage the roots. Use organic nitro- 
gen and material with a high content 
of phosphorus. Feed often, but not 
with heavy doses. 

Reprint 

from the 

magazine of the 

San Diego Cactus 

and 
Succulent Society 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



^oCd On Tfouz garden 

by Gladys Rooder 



THE Satsuma Mandarin, a tan- 
gerine tree that is both orna- 
mental and extremely productive, 
makes a beautiful addition to a yard 
or garden that lies in the citrus belt, 
for it thrives both along the coast 
and inland. It tends to be a dwarf tree 
growing to a height of eight or nine 
feet and approximately nine feet in 
diameter. The rich green leaves grow 
thick, and dropage is at a minimum. 

In late autumn, through the holiday 
season, and in the first months of the 
year it bears a tremendous load of 
bright orange fruit, much of it in 
clusters along the green foliage. The 
fruit varies from small to large, and 
sometimes very large — all in the same 
crop. This tangerine peels easily, the 
sections separate readily, and to find 
a seed in one is rare indeed. The 
fruit can be picked over a period of 
two to three months and there is 
usually more than a family can eat. 

In Japan these tangerines can be 
bought frozen whole in their skins. 
They are peeled and eaten frozen — a 



refreshing treat. 

The writer has a Satsuma Mandarin 
that is nine years old. It was planted 
near the coast and given frequent 
waterings as it grew. The first Christ- 
mas two dozen pieces of fruit were on 
the tree ranging in size from small to 
one that measured eleven inches in cir- 
cumference. Since (with the excep- 
tion of one year when the yield was 
low) it has borne bumper crops, 
enough for the family to eat; boxes, 
bowls, and bags of them to be given 
as gifts, and of course bags of them 
for the freezer. 

Satsuma Mandarins can be planted 
at any time of the year except during 
cold weather. To determine the right 
time to plant in your particular loca- 
tion, check with a nurseryman in your 
area. 

With its year-round beauty and 
bountiful fruit during the holiday sea- 
son when tangerines are expensive, the 
Satsuma Mandarin is truly "gold" in 
your garden. 





EXQUISITE 

BLOOMING PLANTS AT 

GARDEN CENTER 
454-424 1 

7555 EADS AVENUE • LA JOLLA 



John tolel 
book # era 



craft: shop 



See us at our NEW LOCATION 

780 Prospect, La Jolla 

454-4766 454-0814 



CAROLYN 
BEAUTY SHOP 

CALL 234-5344 

121 W. Juniper— Just off First Ave. Bus 

Convenient Parking 



WHEN YOU MOVE 

Send new and old address 

plus zip code to 

CALIFORNIA GARDEN 
Balboa Parle, San Diego I, Calif. 92101 



Satsuma Mandarin Tree Thickly 
Hung with Golden Fruit. 



OCTOBER -NOVEMBER, 1967 



^z/tvi ^^Tpprcciation ^>y 



ALICE MARY GREER 

and Her Floral Association Background 



Successful organizations are the 
product of thoughtful citizens inspired 
to work together for a worthwhile 
cause. So it was with the founders 
of the SDFA who endeavored to pro- 
mote civic beautification in San Diego 
years before the idea was nationalized. 
For a decade and a half the Floral 
was firmly established by the enthusi- 
asm and dedication of its early mem- 
bers. For the next twenty-four years 
the real torchbearer was its president, 
Mary A. Greer. She carried the group 
through one war and then did yeoman 
service towards setting up and furnish- 
ing its new quarters in Balboa Park 
which had to be relinquished during 
the second Exposition and again later 
when it became a library during 
World War II. Unhappily she died 
in 1948, just before the present loca- 
tion was regained. 

In the fall of the next year, when 
Dorothy Abbott was president, with 
Georgia Wright as chairman, a large 
Chrysanthemum Show was put on as 
a memorial to Mrs. Greer. Appropri- 
ately, it was staged in the gardens 
and teahouse of the Japanese Pavilion 
in Balboa Park, a place now occupied 
by the Children's Zoo. The show was 
a great success both for its outstanding 
artistry and as a spontaneous expres- 
sion of affection by the members for 
their past president. It also cleared a 
substantial sum for the Mary A. Greer 
Fund, still existent and since aug- 
mented by the life memberships of 
Alice Greer, Dr. Roberts and Louise 
Gardner. 

During her mother's presidency 
Miss Greer was busy as an English 
teacher but, like a good bent twig, she 



had been well and early trained in 
garden and Floral Association ways, 
often serving as its secretary. She also 
developed a life-long and prize-win- 
ning ability in flower arranging which 
in turn made her much sought as a 
show judge. Like her mother she was 
an ardent and hard-working promoter 
of all Floral projects, from the shows 
in the park buildings to those entered 
in the Del Mar Fairs. 

Alice Greer was clever at originat- 
ing fund-raising schemes. In earlier 
years she was instrumental not only 
in backing tours of gardens that had 
won in SDFA contests but in opening 
the homes for displays of flower 
arrangements suited to their interior 
decors, an idea since adopted by many 
other groups. She dreamed up a very 
successful garden fashion show on the 
grounds of a beautiful Point Loma 
home. A founding member of the 
Fine Arts Gallery she often helped 
with Floral shows there. The "Christ- 
mas Lights Tours" were her inspiration. 
She labored on their difficult plan- 
ning for three years until their popu- 
larity brought on too much compe- 
tition. "Garden Tours for Members" 
was another of her happy innovations 
that involved an immense amount of 
patient persistence in locating gardens 
for those delightful visitations. The 
charm and individuality of her own 
garden placed it among the best. 
Miss Greer was also one of the or- 
ganizers of the "Flower Arranger's 
Guild" which is now making such a 
fine name for its local flower show 
entries as well as for its own original 
and outstanding arrangement shows. 
Because of her participation in so 



many endeavors Alice was an ever- 
dependable source of information on 
customs and events of the Floral past 
as well as the instigator of so many 
ways to promote its future. She will 
be sorely missed in both capacities. 

Absorbed as she was in all the 
activities of the SDFA, the interest 
closest to Miss Greer's heart was that of 
the California Garden. For twenty 
years she served it in many capacities, 
most often as contributor, sometimes 
as advertising agent, associate or 
assistant editor and, in her last years, 
as reviewer of garden books under 
the heading "A Book in the Hand." 

As the Floral Association loses the 
name of Alice Mary Greer from its 
roster of Honorary Life Members we 
will all remember it was truly she 
who honored it with her dedicated 
unselfish service. Because Alice was 
always involved in a love of books, it 
would seem appropriate for friends 
who wish to show their appreciation 
of her devotion to the SDFA, to con- 
tribute to her dearest project, the 
Mary A. Greer Memorial Library 
which she established shortly after 
her mother's death and has carried 
on ever since. It is to be hoped that, 
eventually, a librarian may be found 
who will make this exceptional col- 
lection of garden books available for 
some daytime hours of reading and 
lending and perhaps devote her spare 
time to producing the long-awaited 
index of California Garden. In this 
splendid way Alice Greer's deep at- 
tachments to Floral affairs will con- 
tinue to have a vital function in the 
future. — A.M.C. 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



A Book In The Hand 



Recent Books Reviewed by Garden Club Members 



Sunset Western Garden Book: by 
the Editors of Sunset Magazine 
and Book Company. Menlo Park, 
1967; 448 pp. Hard Cover. $5.95. 

Information on every phase of gar- 
dening in every western climate, charts 
on insect and disease control and pro- 
fuse, clear illustrations make a special 
gem of this volume. New arrivals in 
this part of the country would do well 
to acquire it before even visiting a 
nursery. 

Novices and experienced gardeners 
alike are certain to appreciate the 
Plant Selection Guide for special areas 
and conditions. This very important 
section makes up, appropriately, the 
'green pages.' 

There are sixty-five additional pages 
in this new edition of the excellent 
Western Garden Book and each page 
has a wealth of thoroughly up-dated 
information. 

Included, of course, is the fine en- 
cyclopedia listing botanical and com- 
mon names of flowers, trees, shrubs 
and vines, bringing a first-rate hand- 
book and easy reference work to every 
hopeful gardener. 

Mrs. Paul N. Squire — 
Floral Association 

The Rose; a Complete Handbook, by 
Roy Genders. Bobbs Merrill, 1965. 
623 pages, $12.50. 

GENDER'S book is called a com- 
plete handbook, and if you 
were growing roses in England, 
where this book was written, it could 
be so used. You can always obtain 
something of value from any book 
about roses. In this case one ob- 
tains many historical facts that are 
not mentioned in most books: the 
origin of the rose; the rose in church 
history; the Damask rose; the rose and 
royalty and quite a great deal more of 
interest. 

The evolution of the hybrid tea rose 
is fully covered, starting with the China 
rose — and our own wild roses — and 
how various types were combined until 
we obtained the hybrid tea of today. 



Empress Josephine did much to bring 
the rose into favor and she also stimu- 
lated the hybridization of new roses. 
How we finally obtained a good yel- 
low rose and the orange-yellow shad- 
ings, is gone into in detail. The book 
also speaks of Redoute, who helped 
make the rose popular with his great 
paintings. 

Roses may be used in many ways 
and in many places in the garden and 
everyone can obtain some good ideas 
about how and where to use them to 
better advantage. Full credit is given 
to their hardiness and durability. The 
book mentions the labor-saving quali- 
ties of the rose which is an item often 
overlooked. Some roses will do well 
in certain places but not in others — 
which brings out the fact that we 
should choose our varieties a little bet- 
ter — unless, of course, we are testing 
roses. 

There are sections about the dif- 
ferent types. The word 'grandiflora' 
is mentioned, but of course in English 
usage. Our grandifloras are listed as 
floribundas, and it seems strange to 
see Queen Elizabeth listed as a flori- 
bunda. Another item discussed is the 
perfume of a rose. Why are some roses 
fragrant and others not, and why 
(until recently) the floribunda type 
had no fragrance. Also, how do we 
describe the particular fragrance of 
a rose. There is a great deal about 
floribundas and a good account of min- 
iature roses which everyone will enjoy. 
Climbers, ramblers, and shrub roses 
are discussed informatively. 

Preparing soil for a rose garden, and 
the planting and mulching are impor- 
tant there as here. The diseases and 
the pests are discussed too. 

Many rose varieties are listed and 
described with many excellent color 
plates. There is also what they call 'A 
Diary for a Rose Grower' which makes 
good reading but does not always ap- 
ply to us here in Southern California. 

Fred W. Walters- 
Past President, of the 
American Rose Society 



Driftwood Miniatures. Schaffer, 
Florence M. Hearthside Press, 
1967. 128 pages, $4.95. 

Just off the press, having been 
printed this spring, is the delight- 
ful book, Driftwood Miniatures. 

It is a book that will appeal to the 
naturalist, the garden clubbers and the 
hobbyist; but it is a must for the 
flower arranger or the home decorator. 
The author tells how and where to 
find driftwood and other miniatures 
of nature that may be used in arrange- 
ments as containers, as foliage or 
flowers or accessories. After reading 
this book, one should become educated 
to seek tiny wonders of nature along 
the mountain trails, the desert washes, 
the sea shore and the proverbial back- 
yard. 

A practical chapter gives instruction 
in cleaning and finishing wood and 
instructs in the art of using tools and 
preserving materials. Frequently doled 
out as valuable information in flower 
arranging classes, the secret of drying 
plant material is explained, giving the 
techniques for drying in sand, in silica 
gel, and in glycerinizing. This review- 
er appreciated the tip on how to 
achieve color in glycerinized plant ma- 
terials. 

Possibilities and proportions in min- 
iatures arrangements are pictured in 
99 halftones made especially for this 
publication. Among the interesting 
chapters well illustrated are the chap- 
ters on Driftwood Scenes with Human 
Figures, Miniature Landscapes with 
Birds and Animals, and Miniatures 
from the Sea. 

An excellent How-to-Do-It book, 
this text tells how to make bases, how 
to store and exhibit miniatures, and 
it tells how to create wall hangings 
and tiny planters. It, to the fullest 
degree, exhibits the author's know- 
ledge in the area of driftwood, a sub- 
ject she has written about twice before. 
In 1957 she authored the first how-to- 
do-it book written about driftwood. 
This was The ABC of Driftwood 
which has become a basic reference 
book used by arrangers; and, because 
of its popularity, has been reprinted 
many times. In I960 a second book, 
Driftwood in the Home, was pub- 
lished. Her second book instructs in 
the art of making useful and decora- 

(Continued on page 30) 



OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 1967 



7nA& 



f f 



omai m a 



mini-Pot 



by Simonne Daly and Shirley Hosier 



Technical Advisor: Mr. Masao Takanshi, President San Diego Bonsai Club 
Illustrators: Akira Shima, Lester Jaussaud. 



BONSAI, the art of growing min- 
iature trees in earthen ware or 
pottery containers, developed 
and perfected in Japan, is believed 
to have been brought to that country 
around the beginning of the thirteenth 
century from China, where the origins 
of this delicate art lay in the symbol- 
ism of the Lunar New Year. From 
the tiny plants forced into bloom in 
paper-screened houses to celebrate the 
New Year in faraway China this art 
has reached, via Japan, the Western 
world. 

To distinguish these plants from 
ordinary potted ones the Japanese re- 
sorted to a phonetic borrowing from 
the Chinese characters, p'en tsai, mean- 
ing "planted in a shallow vessel," re- 
sulting in the bone-sigh pronuncia- 
tion with equal emphasis on each syl- 
lable — no accent on either, with the 
word always used in the singular. 

From a specialist's composition, the 
growth of a mini-tree has come within 



the realm of the average man, and 
now more of us are enjoying this re- 
warding pastime. Men, particularly, 
seem to enjoy the bonsai craft, and 
the male will find himself in his ele- 
ment, as he has in that of the cuisine ! 

Many Occidentals, in contrast to 
Orientals, feel it takes too much time 
to accomplish a good bonsai. Not so ! 
With a little ingenuity a tree in min- 
iature can be reproduced to be enjoyed 
"in a hurry." 

So much has been written about 
"age" in the traditional miniature tree 
art, and at the risk of attacking cher- 
ished beliefs, we would like to speak 
a little about "youth" in this same art. 
Ours is a young country, from the 
standpoint of possessing a tradition of 
ancient culture. We have not had 
time to inherit bonsai trees hundreds 
of years old. Nevertheless, we can en- 
joy the art. Everything must have its 
infancy. So, why wait? Beginnings 
have been made, and there are a goodly 




number of pioneers who are already 
reaping the rewards of initiative and 
diligence. For those who are intrigued, 
but hesitate (they must get started 
sometime) why not now? The real 
age of the bonsai tree is not all im- 
portant — apparent age is what one 
should strive for, for forthwith en- 
joyment. 

For the American who will want to 
see results rapidly, he can find in- 
digenous species of plants and trees 
which will grow swiftly enough for 
him to love and admire even in the 
early years of their training. He can 
select a type and shape natural to his 
locality, either evergreen or deciduous, 
and in this way he will be able to 
more easily appreciate the art. 

Bonsai trees are especially adapt- 
able to California patios and outdoor 
living, gracing walls near garden 
pools or enhancing the welcome at an 
entrance, reminiscent of the secluded 
courtyards of China and the intimate 
gardens of Japan. And as conversa- 
tion pieces they are unsurpassed! 
However, the viewing of them should 
be confined to the outdoors, and only 
upon rare or a special occasion should 
a tree be brought into the house and 
then only for a short while — a limit 
of hours, not days. Also, it must be 
attended by certain precautions and 
conditions, such as freedom from 
drafts and overheated dry rooms. A 



Semi-cascade Style Carefully Con- 
trolled Shape and Proportion. 

Lester Jaussaud 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



mini-tree is, after all, a miniature 
adult, and needs to be exposed to the 
elements just as do its big relatives 
living in the ground in a natural habi- 
tat. A light wind renders it strong; 
night dew gives it vigor; the sun 
strengthens the foliage, giving it a 
good, healthy color and complexion; 
and, of course, the bantam tree loves 
a gentle rain. 

It is beyond the realm of this ar- 
ticle to outline the techniques of bon- 
sai growing. Many fine books have 
been written on the subject. One of 
our favorites is The Japanese Art of 
Miniature Trees and Landscapes by 
Yuji Yoshimura and Giovanna M. 
Halford, and there are excellent ref- 
erences at the library. We would like 
merely to mention a few things which 
might be of wonderment to the in- 
dividual who is entertaining the de- 
sire to venture down the bonsai path. 

First of all, the novice mini-tree 
grower can bypass the lengthy process 
either by buying a plant from a 
nursery or by digging one up in the 
woods or mountains; or if a freeway 
happens to be going through his way, 
he could rescue a small tree with low 
branches — and top it! We might add 
here — that trees planted in the ground 
and trimmed are not bonsai. They 
must be container plants. 

The best bet to secure a good tree 
is to buy and work with a five-gallon 
size plant. This affords a head start! 
In the evergreen class a favorite of 
the authors' is prostrate juniper. It is 
very easy to grow and has all the 
attributes of good bonsai; large trunk 
and tiny, compact scalelike "leafage" 
or "laminae," and it is adaptable to 
adverse conditions. The Japanese black 
pine is also a most satisfying tree to 
bonsai, because it soon takes on the 
look of age. It has no "off" season, 
never fades and is considered a sym- 
bol of long life by the Japanese. In 
addition to the two above, good ever- 
greens to bonsai are Japanese box, 
Irish yew, and other members of the 
juniper family with the exception of 
the tamarisk whose feathery foliage is 
without substance enough to create 
good bonsai form. The requisite for 
the selection of a deciduous tree is 
that it have, like the evergreen, small 
leaves; and good examples of this type 
are the gingko, willow, Chinese elm, 



Japanese maple, pomegranate and other 
fruit trees. 

In styling of bonsai the art form 
should be believable, natural, and spon- 
taneous — not arty. The rootage must 
show stability which is also evidence 
of an old or older tree. One must 
remember that imitation of nature is 
what one is attempting, and that na- 
turalness is the key. A tree should 
not be too deeply stamped with hu- 
man personality. Rather it should 
look like an occurrence, consistent 
with nature, and not a made thing. 
Natural form is revered by the Jap- 
anese. A good practice is to study a 
picture in a book on bonsai or a na- 
turally growing tree, and follow the 
design. A sense of scale is important. 
It is one of the many talents of the 
Japanese. Most amateurs plant their 
trees in pots too large. The height 
of an erect tree should be at least 
three to four times the depth of its 
container. A pleasing composition is 



arrived at when the branches extend 
beyond the width of the pot. 

The choice of container should be 
made with deliberation and considera- 
tion of the tree; and the use of som- 
ber colors is a must in order not to 
detract from it. Ideal containers are 
really of the tray type, in keeping with 
the definition of bonsai, more shallow 
than deep, and the one selected should 
hold the least amount of soil that will 
support the life of the tree. To qualify 
as an authentic bonsai "pot" the con- 
tainer must be ceramic — never wood — 
and preferably unglazed. It may also 
be natural rock, with a depression, or 
adaptable feather rock. Beautiful ef- 
fects can be achieved with inexpen- 
sive, modern containers in the typical 
oriental style. One can even make his 
own, giving it an earthenlike look. 
This could be a "happening!" 

When exhibiting bonsai one must 
bear in mind that the total effect in 
displaying a tree includes the stand 




r \% 

'«*%*. 



Formal Upright Style Most Favored 
by Bonsai Enthusiasts for its Minia- 
ture Natural Effect. 

Akira Shima 




iTTTl *" T~l T"" "T» 



on which the container is set, and it 
should be in keeping with the "true 
to nature" concept and the "look of 
age" illusion. If wood is the medium 
used, it is best to leave the pieces as 
natural as possible. A slice of tree 
trunk, pieces of old plank laid side 
by side, woven-together bamboo canes 
are all good. A teak root is the piece 
de resistance, of course, of the na- 
tural wood stands! Surface of wood 
should have a weathered, mellow pa- 
tina which comes with age and use. If 
rock, marble (unpolished) or slate 
should be chosen, the fragments must 
never be cut; all natural base material 
such as these are better left in irregu- 
lar shapes and contours to give the 
entire composition an unaffected look. 
The use of brick or any such fabri- 
cated material is taboo. The exception 
to this is the small oriental tables of 
varying heights, such as the unique 
teakwood stands, acceptable — and 
prized, shown frequently in the alcove 
or tokonoma of the traditional Jap- 
anese home. 

In the patio or garden innumerable 
spots will be revealed as perfect stands 
and natural settings for bonsai: low 
walls, rocks, slatted benches or shelves, 
even a stone-strewn path — and some 
shade trees, not too dense, can serve 
effectively at times as natural sun- 
filtering "lathhouses." 

Moss grown on the top of the soil 
in the bonsai container will give an 
illusion of age. It resembles grass in 
miniature. Small pieces of it can be 
picked up wherever found and pressed 
into the soil of the pot. It can also be 
dried and stored in a jar, and when- 
ever needed, sprinkled lightly on the 
earth and watered until it comes to 
life. 

A single, unusual stone, or a piece 
of petrified wood, commensurate with 
the scale and type of the bonsai, can 
be used to complete a composition, 



but never a handful of small stones! 
A larger, or medium stone, deserves 
to be displayed on a low stand specially 
contoured for its individual shape. 
This is the art of Sui-Seki, related, 
but distinct from Bonsai. 

After transplanting or "potting," 
the bonsai should be kept in the shade 
for about ten days and not over- 
watered, just kept moist, and to main- 
tain this dampness requires a watchful 
checking and daily watering, when 
necessary. Later, exposure to morning 
sun is best with a more thorough irri- 
gation schedule being continued on a 
morning or evening time every day. 
Tap water leaves much to be desired 
as a wetting agent because of its chemi- 
cals to render it "safe," and although 
distilled water is free from this "con- 
tamination" danger, its cost is pro- 
hibitive, and it is perhaps too pure. 
Rain water and natural spring water 
are ideal, but, if impossible to collect, 
can be simulated by allowing tap water 
to stand for two or three days in a 
container before using. This elimi- 
nates the chlorine. The proper water- 
ing procedure is to water with a fine 
spray, and slowly, until the water 
comes through the hole in the bottom 
of the pot. This insures even per- 
meation of all the soil around the roots 
and prevents any salt in tap water, if 
that is used, from collecting or build- 
ing up to the detriment of the tree. 
The foliage should also be sprayed, 
but not in the sun. A bulb syringe 
with spray cap or a small plastic 
clothes sprinkler are handy gadgets to 
make the watering an all around 
front and back of tree an easier job. 

In regard to the control of insects, 
we would like to pass on a little trick 
not found in the books; a bit of cot- 
ton, saturated with seventy-percent 
(rubbing) alcohol, applied to any 
affected areas will kill these little 
enemies. 




Fertilizing of bonsai trees must be 
done sparingly and with understand- 
ing of what is to be accomplished. It 
is best to consult a reliable authority 
or text, bearing in mind always that 
we do not want the tree to grow too 
much or too fast. 

This feat — prevention of growth, 
leads to a passing thought on the ob- 
jection by some that the stunting and 
twisting of trees is unnatural. The 
answer we have to this is that there 
is no sentient feeling involved and 
that any deformity or grotesquerie in 
styling is not classic bonsai. Only that 
shape which evokes pleasure and 
beauty should be fashioned. The 
"dwarf" trees found growing in nature 
are, after all, adaptations by nature it- 
self to afflictive weather and soil con- 
ditions, producing the interesting 
windblown, twisted, and gnarled con- 
tours and forms. And, of course, the 
ultimate in the hunt for bonsai-pos- 
sible trees is to try to secure some of 
these natural midgets produced by 
Mother Nature herself. The formal 
upright style seems to be the most fa- 
vored by bonsai enthusiasts — and the 
most consistent with nature. But modi- 
fied variations should never be con- 
sidered as "binding the feet" of an 
oriental maiden ! 

The art of bonsai is a subtle one — 
an understatement. The creator of a 
beautiful bonsai carries his delight 
like a secret. The myths and mysteries 
are being dispelled, and it is hoped 
that the cult of the bonsai connois- 
seur will become westernized to the 
point where mini-trees will be handed 
down along with other family heir- 
looms, at which time the proud in- 
heritor will appreciate that he has in 
his possession jewels precious with 
overtones of antiquity! 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The Japanese Art of Miniature Trees 
and Landscapes — Yuji Yoshimura 
and Giovanna M. Halford. 

Handbook on Dwarfed Potted Trees 
— Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 

The Art of Growing Miniature Trees, 
Plants, and Landscapes — Tatsuo 
Ishimoto. 

Bonsai Miniature Totted Trees — Norio 
Kobayashi. 

The Master's Book of Bonsai — Com- 
piled by Directors of Japan Bonsai 
Association. 

Bonsai in California — California Bon- 
sai Society, Inc. 



Cascade Style Slanting Carefully 
Trained in a Harmonizing Con- 
tainer. Lester Jaussaud 



10 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



00 th Annivers 



ary 



Celebration 



To Be Centered Around 

Old Town 



by 
Virginia M. Innis 



Referred to as the West Coast 
"Plymouth Rock," Old Town is not 
only the birthplace of San Diego, it 
is where California started. Plans to 
center the 200th Anniversary celebra- 
tion around the Old Town Plaza were 
announced on September 11 by the 
State Division of Parks and Beaches 
and the San Diego 200th Anniversary 
Committee. 

This year the state committed itself 
to the task of developing a historic 
park in Old Town. Over a period of 
twenty years, a six block park and 
surrounding area are to be developed. 
$100,000 was voted in funds to be 
spent this year and $290,000 is ex- 
pected to be spent in 1968-69. Robert 
Uhte, architect for state Division of 
Parks and Beaches admitted that this 
was not enough money to complete 
the park in time for the bicentennial 
celebration. Most of the restoration 
work must wait until a master plan 
has been developed, he said. 

Authentic restoration of a site is 
frequently a complex problem. The 
Old Town Plaza is an example, and 
San Diegans who know its history have 
had concern about the state's plans for 
the plaza. 

The plaza began during the Mexican 
era as a block square city park dedi- 
cated as Washington Square. It was 
the center of community and military 
life. In this barren square, no tree or 
grass grew. Military drills were con- 



ducted in its summer dust and winter 
mud. It was the center for sports 
events and occasionally pits were dug 
for cock fights and at least one bear 
and bull fight is known to have been 
held. 

When the Americans came and 
raised their flag in the plaza, the char- 
acter and appearance did not change. 
The first few trees were planted be- 
tween 1900-08; the first grass and the 
majority of trees and shrubs were 
planted during 1928-29. Authentic res- 
toration of the plaza would not be a 
popular act, it would be a denuding of 
flora with forty to sixty-seven years of 
growth. As a focal point for the anni- 
versary celebration, it does not seem 
likely that any changes will occur 
which will diminish the beauty of the 
plaza. 

The influence of Kate Sessions is 
keenly felt in San Diego; — the Old 
Town Plaza is not an exception. Kate 
Sessions came to San Diego before 
the turn of the century and established 
a nursery at Fifth Avenue and C Street 
where the Kress store stands today. 
Soon after her arrival, she started the 
life-long process of importing trees 
and experimenting with their growth 
in the San Diego area. It is thought 
that it was she who planted the first 
trees in the plaza. They are Australian 
eucalyptus, tall, solemn Blue Gums, 
they rise to a height of over 200 feet. 
The trees planted at the latter date 



were seedlings from Sessions imports 
growing in Balboa Park among which 
was a cork oak imported from the 
Canary Islands. Many cork oak seed- 
lings were planted and they have 
grown well in the plaza. 

Other than a handsome stand of 
cork oak in the San Diego County 
Quail Botanical Gardens, the cork oak 
in the plaza may be the largest number 
of cork oaks their size in this area. 
Chauncy I. Jerabek, San Diego's tree 
expert recalls planting these cork oak 
seedlings from gallon cans. He was 
also responsible for planting the pep- 
pers which are natives of South 
America and the Australian tristania 
which are frequently mistaken for 
magnolias. Close examination of the 
tristania reveals a spotted trunk, not 
too unlike the spotted eucalyptus. Mr. 
Jerabek also recalls that during this 
same period the wall around the plaza 
was constructed and two beds of giant 
cacti were planted to each side from 
the center of the Plaza. Early Mexican 
inhabitants had brought the giant cacti 
with them from Mexico. Grass now 
grows where these cacti were, and to- 
day Mr. Jerabek seems to regret that 
more native trees are not represented 
in the plaza. 

Knowledge of Old Town native 

trees has been gained by the studying 

of old photographs. Mr. Jerabek states 

that it is easy to identify trees by this 

(Continued on page 17) 



OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 1967 



11 



Rare Eucalyptus In Balboa Park 



by Lawrence J. Fitzgerald 



MANY articles have been written 
about the genus Eucalyptus 
and undoubtedly more will 
continue to be written for some time 
to come. I would like to continue this 
non-ending subject and point out some 
of the unusual eucalyptus species that 
are growing in San Diego within our 
beautiful Balboa Park. 

Eucalyptus dado calyx (sugar gum); 
E. globulus (Tasmanian blue gum) ; 
E. camaldudensis (red gum) and E. 
ci trio dor a (lemon scented gem) are 
some of the more common varieties 
that we see in San Diego as elsewhere. 
We don't have to drive far before we 
come upon these. 

The trees that I am referring to as 
rarely seen are: E. caleyi (Caleyi iron- 
bark) ; E. microcorys (tallow wood); 
E. gomphocephala (tuart) ; E. diversi- 
color (karri); E. steedmanii (Steed- 
man's eucalyptus or swamp gum) ; E. 
stricklandi (Strickland's gum) and 
E. ovata (swamp gum). These euca- 
lyptus trees are not new to San Diego 
for they have been growing in the park 
for many years. Many of us have 
visited Balboa Park frequently and 
most people have looked at these trees 
but never gave a thought as to their 
rarity. 

Eucalyptus caleyi is located east of 
Sixth and Fir, directly across the street 
at the top of a bank some 100 feet 
from the curb. This is a moderately 
tall glaucous ironbark. Its gray bark 
is deeply furrowed and quite different 



Slender rough trunk and pendant 
branchlets make an interesting and 
graceful tree: Eucalyptus caleyi or 
Caley's Ironbark at 6th and Fir on 
the hillside in Balboa Park. 

Photo by Betty Mackintosh 



from most eucalyptus trunks. In Aus- 
tralia it is considered an ornamental 
tree and is not much used for timber. 
It is a good tree for bees when in 
bloom. 

Eucalyptus microcorys is approxi- 
mately 65 feet to the northeast of E. 



calyei. This tree is somewhat hidden 
among larger sugar gums. A few limbs 
cut here and there would put E. micro- 
corys in clearer view for everyone to 
see. Since this tree has been crowded, 
the trunk is straight and tall. The 
bark is brown, fibrous and persistent. 




12 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



In its native habitat it is over 100 
feet high and up to ten feet in dia- 
meter. The only other place that I 
have seen this variety is in the Los 
Angeles State and County Arboretum. 

Eucalyptus gomphocephala is grow- 
ing behind the Conference Building. 
From the center of the building, step 
off approximately 165 feet due west 
toward 395 freeway. There are two 
of these trees not far from each other. 
They are fairly tall; the bark is per- 
sistent throughout, light gray and sub- 
fibrous. The eastern blue gum group 
includes this tree. 

Eucalyptus diversicolor is located 
along the same row as the E. gompho- 
cephala. There are two of these trees 
also, and since they are growing with 
enough space available we find these 
to be spreading trees of good size. 

In western Australia, these two are 
considered among the tallest in Aus- 
tralia; the wood is red, hard, heavy and 
strong. It is a most important com- 
mercial timber of that region. I had 
a difficult time in trying to locate the 
fruit pods as they seem to be quite 
scarce. Identifying this tree would be 
practically impossible without the pods. 
The leaves are not sufficient for posi- 
tive identification as many eucalyptus 
leaves are similar in appearance. 

Eucalyptus steedmanii is growing 
south of the Federal Building some 
200 feet. This is a Mallee type tree. 
Mallee is a native name for a euca- 
lyptus thicket. It has light brown, 
smooth and shining bark and grows 
to a height of 25 to 30 feet. I have 
also seen this tree in the Arboretum. 
The fruit is four-winged, which put it 
in close relation to E. forrestiana and 
E. tetraptera. 

Eucalyptus stricklandi is just 25 
feet from E. steedmanii and about the 
same height. The bark of this variety 
is rough and persistent at the base. 
The remainder of the trunk and 
branches are smooth. One of these 
trees also grows in the Zoo. This is 
a good tree for dry conditions. Flow- 



Dainty seed pods and leaves of E. 
steedmanii contrast with large flakes 
of peeling bark, tree located on 
edge of the parking lot behind the 
Federal Building, Balboa Park. 

Photo by Betty Mackintosh 



ers are yellow and showy in July and 
August. 

Eucalyptus ovata is located north of 
the Botanical Building within close 
range of the Children's Zoo fence. 
Close to it are three kinds of eucalyp- 
tus, E. robusta, E. cla.doca.lyx and E. 
pcifolia. Here we have a really crowded 
condition. Clearing away a tree or 
two and some pruning on the rest 
would help make this eucalyptus group 
presentable and identifiable. The few 
times when I glanced at this tree, I 
took it to be E. globulus but on look- 
ing the tree over more carefully, I was 
quite surprised to find it to be E. ovata. 
The leaves and fruit pods were not at 
all like those of E. globulus. This is 
a large tree with the bark rough part 
way up the trunk. The branches shed 
long strips of bark which just hang 
from the limbs. Some do fall to the 
ground eventually. This condition 



makes the tree look a little untidy, and 
usually it will continue this way as 
the habit is characteristic of this tree. 
Eucalyptus viminalis and E. globulus 
are noted for this condition also. 

While most of these rare eucalyptus 
are not noted for brilliant flowers, as 
some species are, they do possess other 
characteristics which make them fit in 
well with our other varieties. They 
are difficult to find in general nur- 
series, but some large Los Angeles 
nurseries do grow some though they 
are usually sold only in large quan- 
tities. There are several places to get 
seed of eucalyptus varieties, such as 
Edwin A. Menninger, Drawer 45, 
Stuart, Florida 33494 and Max Watson 
Eucalyptus Arboretum, 21 S. Clare- 
mont, San Jose, California. Los An- 
geles State and County Arboretum 
can also give advice on sources of 
seeds. 



■i "hs- ■ .' . 





,/ /•#&,* 



OCTOBER - NOVEMBER. 1967 



13 



Whether or not we approve the end results, land in California has been, 
is being, and will continue to be developed at a prodigious rate to 
meet the needs of our burgeoning population. The "why" of land 
development is obvious; the "how" is a question that should be of vital 
and immediate concern to all of us, as it is to our land architects. 
Only enlightened public opinion and aroused interest can help them win 




THE BATTLE 

FOR 

GOOD LAND DESIGN 



by Dorothy P. Whiteside 



AN UNCHARITABLE visitor to 
California, asked recently for 
L his impressions of the state, re- 
marked, "Oh, I dunno. Seems to be 
a land of bulldozers and sprinkler 
systems." His comment was scarcely 
geared to endear himself to California 
residents, but, like a Long Island gnat, 
it's apt to buzz around uncomfortably 
in the back of one's mind. 

For it is true that California today 
is a prime stamping ground for the 
bulldozer. Construction, grading and 
earth moving, either recently com- 
pleted or in progress, are evident al- 
most everywhere one looks. Very few 
individuals have sufficient knowledge 
of land planning and design to de- 
termine whether these projects are 
good or bad, although it is easy to 
pick out those that complement their 
surroundings and thus please the eye. 
Since all construction is expensive — 
much of it involving large amounts of 
the taxpayer's money — and since all of 
us have to live with the completed 
projects for a long time to come, it 
would seem that we, as citizens, have 
a right to question whether or not 
full use is being made of the best 
available land planners, before the 
bulldozers are turned loose on our 
helpless acres. Who, then, are these 
planners and designers, and how do 
they function? 

Obviously, the man best qualified to 



plan and supervise land development 
is the man best trained in land de- 
sign. Today, the members of the 
American Society of Landscape Archi- 
tects are so qualified, by reason of 
education and training; they are also 
dedicated men, with boundless en- 
thusiasm for their profession. But 
they are waging an uphill fight for a 
chance to implement their skill in de- 
sign and in the optimum use of land. 
Especially since many of the projects 
in which they are potentially interested 
involve public funds and therefore 
the stamp of official approval; and all 
of us know that the wheels of official- 
dom grind exceedingly slow and sel- 
dom with much imagination. 

To see how the land architects them- 
selves felt about the problem, we 
tracked down three well-known local 
members of A.S.L.A., all of whom 
are practicing in the San Diego area. 
The first, Roy Seifert, who holds a 
B.S. degree from the College of En- 
vironmental Design, University of 
California, established his own firm 
here in 1956, after five years of ex- 
perience as draftsman in landscape 
architecture in San Francisco and San 
Diego. Today Mr. Seifert is a very 
busy man, but he stole an hour from 
his drawing board to answer some of 
our questions — and to infect us with 
his own enthusiasm for the cold war 



he is waging, a war directed against 
public apathy to good land design — 
and against a popular misconception 
of the work of the landscape architect. 
The latter is not, as Mr. Seifert pointed 
out at once, a horticulturist, or a 
"landscape gardener" who arrives on 
the scene when a project nears com- 
pletion and spots a few trees and' 
bushes to "dress it up." True, the 
proper choice and placement of plant 
material enters into his overall con- 
cept for any given development, but it 
is not the controlling factor in his 
plan. His province begins with con- 
tour, drainage, design of the land 
itself for maximum effect and maxi- 
mum utility. (For this reason, we feel 
that the term "land architect," as 
against "landscape architect," better 
describes the function of his profes- 
sion.) 

One cannot talk long with Roy Sei- 
fert without recognizing his firm con- 
viction that land design, if successful, 
must please the eye of the beholder. 
Although esthetics alone — beauty of 
line and artistic merging of buildings 
into their surroundings — cannot be the 
sole aim of the land architect, who is 
also basically concerned with the best 
possible use of the land, Mr. Seifert 
feels strongly that good design in- 
corporates both concepts — that the two 
need not and must not be divorced. 



14 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



In most cases, he says, careful plan- 
ning and forethought can achieve both 
goals; and very often, the land archi- 
tect's study of the terrain in question 
can result in a sizable saving of money 
by eliminating unnecessary grading or 
in simplifying major cuts. The pro- 
cess of earth moving is not only 
costly in itself, but can involve the 
creation of additional irrigation prob- 
lems and increased maintenance costs. 
It is much better, Mr. Seifert feels, to 
work wherever possible with existing 
land contours and adapt land design to 
make the most of them, rather than 
to adhere to the "plateau" concept as 
basic to construction. 

But, granted that good planning is 
essential to good land design, there 
remains a major problem: how to get 
imaginative plans accepted by the 
powers that be. 

"For example," Mr. Seifert mused 
glumly, "I wonder how many of our 
citizens realize that somewhere within 
the San Diego archives is a complete 
set of plans for urban development 
purchased by the city fathers in 1909 
or thereabouts." To the best of his 
knowledge, those plans have seldom 
been dusted off and have never been 
implemented except to a very minor 
extent. It wasn't until the 1950's that 
serious effort was made (and then only 
sporadically) to use the skill of trained 
land architects in city planning. To- 
day, despite aroused concern over 
mushrooming land development, the 
profession is still handicapped by mis- 
understanding and short-sighted zeal 
for the "feasible" solution rather than 
for the long-range goal, on the part 
of local officials — and even the most 
enlightened and far-sighted of the lat- 
ter are often bound by a network of 
zoning ordinances and community 
regulations. Thus the land architect 
must not only produce good design, 
he must devote a large proportion of 
his time to old-fashioned spade-work, 
in order to promote acceptance of his 
basic ideas. 

Mr. Seifert has lived in the imme- 
diate vicinity of La Mesa for fifteen 
years, and as a resident he has natur- 
ally been interested in the develop- 
ment of the area. As a land architect 
he has not been exactly happy about 
the unimaginative layout of park areas 
or about other facets of civic en- 
deavor, and quite naturally he has at- 
tempted to interest the city council in 
better planning. To detail his crusade 
to get even one of his ideas accepted 
would entail much space; suffice to say 
that even after he devoted considerable 
time and expense to making up an 



illustrated brochure, pointing up the 
natural assets of the town and what 
was happening to them because of 
current "land development," he could 
not persuade the councilmen to give 
it more than a cursory glance. Noth- 
ing happened. The town is still re- 
splendent in its (or its council's) idea 
of practicality. (We're not suggesting 
that La Mesa is alone in resisting 
planned design; the hills around here 
are full of towns that could benefit 
from a close study of Mr. Seifert's 
brochure, with its photographs and 
cogent comments.) 

Currently, Mr. Seifert is working 
on plans for the San Onofre Nuclear 
Power Station, where his responsi- 
bility includes aligning roads and park- 
ing areas, as well as tree, shrub and 
ground cover patterns. 

The second land designer with 
whom we talked is Brian Wyckoff, 
who also holds a degree from the 
University of California in landscape 
architecture. Very different in per- 
sonality from the dynamic Mr. Seifert 
(who incidentally is an ex-Marine), 
quiet, soft-spoken Mr. Wyckoff is no 
less dedicated to his chosen field and 
is equally forceful in presenting his 
aims for present and future land de- 
velopment. He spent five years with 
the San Diego County Planning De- 
partment, working on land use and 
zoning studies, master plans for street, 
highway and subdivision layouts. Since 
I960 he has been in private practice, 
and has been associated with Roland 
S. Hoyt, F.A.S.L.A., San Diego, who 
was consulting and project landscape 
architect for San Diego State College. 

Mr. Wyckoff makes evident at once 
his concern for the preservation of 
land, rather than its exploitation. For, 
as he points out, we no longer possess 
limitless acres for expansion. Land has 
become a very expensive commodity, 
as all of us well know, but it can be 
expensive in more ways than one: its 
current price would doubtless have 
scandalized our grandfathers, but mis- 
takes made today in destroying its na- 
tural beauty and its potential useful- 
ness will surely sadden our grandchil- 
dren even more. The havoc wrought 
by a mis-directed bulldozer is not 
easily rectified. 

In his quiet way, Mr. Wyckoff 
builds up to a pretty terrific concept 
of the field of the land architect. It 
involves not only concern with the 
surface contours of the land and thus 
with the proper siting of buildings, ac- 
cess roads and landscaped areas that 
will harmonize with those contours 
and use them to advantage; it also de- 



mands thorough knowledge and con- 
sideration of the substructure of the 
earth's surface so that construction 
will be on a sound and lasting basis. 
For example, there is the matter of 
subterranean water reservoirs, and of 
the existing pattern of water move- 
ments which may be disturbed by large 
earth-moving projects. He cites the 
plan currently pending for a vast 
flood-control channel in Mission Val- 
ley, to be constructed with federal 
funds, to rectify the problems created 
by over-building, some time ago, in 
poor locations. Mr. Wyckoff suggests 
that short-sightedness on the part of 
developers accounted for the original 
problem; the proposed solution, be- 
cause of lack of sufficient study of the 
underlying water system, may not be 
the cure-all it is intended to be by the 
engineers. (And perhaps not so inci- 
dentally, it will inevitably be a scar 
upon the face of Mission Valley.) 

All too often, the land architect is 
called into the picture only after con- 
struction is nearing completion. It 
does not detract from the work of 
building architects and engineers to 
point out that, essential as their func- 
tion obviously is, only the land archi- 
tect is specifically trained in the first 
steps of land development, overall 
land design. Therefore, to call upon 
him last is to reverse the flow of in- 
tegrated effort, often to the detriment 
of final achievement. Sometimes land 
is over-developed, particularly in mod- 
ern housing projects; areas that could 
well be left in their natural state are 
cut and graded, thus increasing con- 
struction costs and decreasing potential 
beauty. 

Since Mr. Wyckoff regards his pro- 
fession as allied to ecology — the struc- 
ture and development of communities 
in relation to their environment — he 
is particularly allergic to the frustra- 
tions imposed upon intelligent plan- 
ning by inflexible community and gov- 
ernment regulations. If this last point 
seems redundant, we can only insist 
that it is also very important. The 
present impasse can be alleviated only 
3y pressure of public opinion. Like his 
fellow professionals, Mr. Wyckoff de- 
votes much of his time to the crusade 
for better land design, his contribu- 
tion consisting mainly of hours spent 
on committee work. 

J. J. Kennedy, an easterner with de- 
grees from the University of Massachu- 
setts, moved to California in the early 
'60s and established his own firm in 
Pacific Beach in 1964. Of his long 
list of projects, one of the most re- 
cently completed and perhaps the best 



OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 1967 



15 



known is the landscaping for the beau- 
tiful new Atlantis Restaurant adjacent 
to Sea World. He has also done the 
site planning and grading for the new 
5 5 -unit Crestwood Apartments in La 
Mesa. 

Mr. Kennedy talks fluently and most 
persuasively about his profession and 
its problems. His primary interest is 
in beauty of design, but all three men 
convey equally their concern for the 
land itself, the preservation of its na- 
tural contour and character. Mr. Ken- 
nedy was most explicit in outlining 
the difficulties the land architect meets 
constantly, as a result of being called 
in rather late in the day, when a pro- 
ject is in the process of construction 
and contracts have already been 
awarded to a building architect and/or 
engineering firm. Sometimes the lat- 
ter are cooperative; very often they 
are not, usually for a very simple eco- 
nomic reason: if a land architect is 
consulted after contracts are awarded, 
his fees must be paid from the original 
contract price. It doesn't require much 
knowledge of human nature to pre- 
dict the usual result: either the land 
architect works on a very low budget, 
adapting to a plan already laid out, or 
the architect calls in a nurseryman and 
has a few trees and shrubs planted. 
Neither alternative produces a very 
satisfactory result, because planting is 
only part of what should be over-all 
land planning; the siting of buildings, 
access roads, irrigation, parking areas, 
etc. The only solution to the problem, 
to attain the best in land design, is to 
call first upon the land architect. 

As for engineers, Mr. Kennedy says 
he doesn't have many problems with 
them. He understands how they think, 
because he himself was trained as an 
engineer before he decided to become 
a land architect. But he does have 
much difficulty with officialdom, in 
common with the rest of his profes- 
sion. Something there is in the pub- 
lic servant that wars against creativity 
in any guise; and in a very real sense, 
land architecture is a creative art. 

One particular point that concerns 
Mr. Kennedy is inadequate promotion 
for funds on the part of commissions 
responsible for the construction of 
public projects. Often too low a figure 
is requested and subsequent plans 
must be curtailed to fit into an unreal- 
istic budget. Economy is of course a 
virtue to be highly prized; but the 
false economy that can result in higher 
maintenance and decreased utility is 
short-sighted and may prove costly, 
whereas better original planning could 
have provided the necessary funds to 
carry through a project of long-last- 



ing value. 

Before setting up shop in this area, 
Mr. Kennedy spent a year at the Los 
Angeles Arboretum to study California 
plant material. He feels strongly that 
good landscape design should incor- 
porate to as large an extent as pos- 
sible the trees and plants native to the 
locale, again with the goal of blend- 
ing setting and design into an har- 
monious whole. About his planting 
at Atlantis Restaurant, which we 
thought very lovely, he says, "Give it 



a chance ! Just wait about three years 
until it fills in and begins to look the 
way I planned it!" 

These three men are all young, tal- 
ented, thoroughly devoted to and am- 
bitious for their profession. Each has 
spent long years in education and ap- 
prenticeship. It seems only fair that 
they be allowed to devote their time 
to drawing up plans, rather than to 
promoting the need for them. We wish 
them well not only for their own sakes 
but for the future face of California. 



MEET THE "DESIGNING MEN" 





I JjHK 



ROY H. SEIFERT, ASLA, registered 
Landscape Architect State of California, 
has his own firm, now located at 320 W. 
Cedar St., San Diego, since 1956. B.S., 
College of Environmental Design, Uni- 
versity of California, 1952. 



BRIAN WYCKOFF, ASLA, registered | 
Landscape Architect State of California. 
B.S., University of California, in Land- 
scape Architecture, 1952. Has worked on 
master and detail plans for UC campuses 
at Riverside, Los Angeles, La Jolla; San 
Diego County Planning Dept., 5 years. 
Private practice since I960. Office at 3552 A 
Promontory, San Diego. 






J. J. KENNEDY, ASLA, registered 
Landscape Architect State of California. 
B.S. in Landscape Architecture, Univer- 
sity of Massachusetts, Graduate School, 
I960; California Plant Material, Los An- 
geles Arboretum, 1961-62. Formerly em- 
ployed by State Division of Architecture, 
Los Angeles office, most of his work 
being on State College campuses; San 
Diego, private practice since July, 1964. 



'■ - /' - ; ' I *, 






16 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



Anniveirs 



ary 



(Continued from page 11) 

method. He has studied many of the 
old photographs and noted that num- 
erous elderberry trees are found in 
many pictures. He mentioned that the 
most popular trees the Mexicans had 
imported were the pepper, olive and 
pomegranate. 

James F. Reading, President of the 
San Diego Historical Shrines Founda- 
tion is frequently one of the guides 
who conducts the free historical tour 
of Old Town which is offered each 
Saturday at 1:30 P.M. starting from 
the steps of the Whaley house. Mr. 
Reading mentions native trees as wil- 
lows, varieties of oaks, cottonwoods 
and sycamores. A lady who was born 
in Old Town before the turn of the 
century and who grew up there re- 
called many beautiful mulberry trees 
having grown in Old Town. Mr. Jera- 
beck said they were black mulberries, 
natives of China. Mulberry trees were 
brought into other parts of the county 
for the commercial intent of producing 
silkworms, hence silk. It is not known 
why the mulberry trees were in Old 
Town. Mr. Reading said there is in- 
formation on a splendid pear orchard 
that existed in the early days of Old 
Town; — it was planted and owned by 
a Mexican family. Mr. Reading seemed 
rather surprised that deciduous fruit 
trees have a record of doing well in 
Old Town. However, this character- 
istic is extended to the Mission Hills 
area that rises above Old Town. Many 
of the older Mission Hills homes have 
ancient apricot trees with enormous 
trunks; many still bear large, excellent 
fruit. The native California Holly 
grows well in this adjacent area, many 
of the large trunk trees seem to have 
sprung up where they are growing. 

One of the points of interest on the 
historical tour is the Jack Stewart house. 
Restoration of this house is one of the 
projects which many anticipate that 
the state can accomplish before the 
anniversary date. In his book, Two 
Years Before the Mast, Dana refers to 
his friend Jack and relates a visit to 
this house. Gardeners who have had 
their plans go astray may prefer an- 
other story about the house. This is 
the lost dream of Jose Machado who 
built the house and envisioned plant- 
ing a large orchard to look out upon 
from his front door. Alas ! his front 
door faced the plaza and the land 
became in demand and Machado sold 
off lots until finally his front door 
overlooked the the back of the stores 
along the Plaza. It was the Mexican 



custom for the bride's parents to pro- 
vide a home for the couple if it were 
possible. When one of Machado's 
daughters married Jack Stewart, the 
couple was given the first Machado 
residence. Machado had built another 
house on the plaza which is also of 
great historic interest, but that's an- 
other story. 

Trees which have been a part of the 
historical past and trees which thrive 
or are native to Old Town have been 
mentioned because trees are sparse in 
Old Town. The area from the Presidio 
Hill to the plaza has many trees and 
is very attractive. The Franciscan Gar- 
dens at the base of the Presidio are 
well kept and beautiful, but no marker 
relates that the first Franciscan fathers 
are buried here, opposite the gardens. 
The small verdant golf course has 
many huge pepper and sycamore trees 
as well as many other smaller trees and 
shrubs. However, on the whole, more 
trees are needed to beautify Old Town. 
It would seem that one of the tasks 
that floral and botanical groups might 
accomplish is to sponsor the mass 
planting of trees in Old Town. 

Many problems will present them- 
selves if this mass planting is started. 
At the present time, many planners 
contemplate the closing of San Diego 
Avenue for several blocks. This act 
might demand the enlarging of two 
other streets. Most Old Town streets 
are narrow. The selection of trees that 
would not block views is a factor as 
well as the task of getting property 
owners to agree to care for the trees 
after their planting. But if Old Town 
is truly to be spruced up for the cele- 
bration, processes toward this goal 
must start soon. 

The possibilities for beautification 
are only limited to our imagination and 
ability to see our goals through. The 
late George White Marston set an ex- 
ample, not only in its munificence but 
in its vision. Piece by piece, he pur- 
chased the land of the Presidio area 
until he owned the whole barren hill- 
side. He then retained architect Wil- 
liam Templeton Johnson to design the 
museum, and landscape architect John 
Nolen to transform the brown hillside 
into a forest park and when these 
tasks were accomplished, the Presidio 
was presented as a gift to the city. 

The San Diego Historical Associa- 
tion and the San Diego County Histor- 
ical Shrines Foundation have great ac- 
complishments to their credit in Old 
Town. Many feel that these organiza- 
tions were instrumental in the final 
acceptance of the area as a future state 
park. Many restored buildings are in 



their present condition because the 
organizations were successful in saving 
them. The San Diego Historical Shrines 
Foundation saved two of the buildings 
from the path of freeways. These are 
the Mason Street School, San Diego's 
first schoolhouse that had been moved 
from its original site to become "the 
old tamale factory" and the Derby- 
Pendleton house which was located 
behind another restored historic home, 
The Old Whaley House. 

An example of what a floral group 
can accomplish is the old Rose garden 
behind the Whaley House. The San 
Diego Floral Association, sponsored 
the planting of the old roses which are 
only grown by collectors today but 
which were found in the gardens con- 
temporary with the Whaley House. In- 
spired by Mr. Roy Lawton the San 
Diego Men's Garden Club took over 
the task of planting and keeping the 
garden in condition. Many of the men 
who worked the hardest were also 
members of the San Diego Rose 
Society. 

At the present time, the rose garden 
is receiving a brick walk in the tradi- 
tional style of old rose gardens. This 
walk is being put in by a welfare 
worker who is in the County Training 
program under the direction of County 
Garden Supervisor James Saraceno. 
Mrs. June Reading, who is Director of 
the Whaley and Derby-Pendleton 
houses, has expressed the wish to have 
brick walks installed in front of the 
false-front stores to the side of the 
Whaley House. She said the Founda- 
tion would welcome a floral group or 
garden club planting of authentic 
flower beds in this area. She further 
suggested an herb garden for the 
Derby-Pendleton House, and the 
County Civic Garden Club is now con- 
sidering the possibility of creating this 
herb garden. 

There is an implanted area where 
Mr. Machado envisioned his orchard. 
How beautiful a few pomegranate 
trees would look in this area! Some 
prefer their scarlet-pink tinged blos- 
soms to the flowering peach or plum. 
Their leaves turn in the fall into a 
riot of color and the tree hangs laden 
with vermilion fruit, and in the winter 
the twisted branches stand bare to 
our winter's sun. 

Most floral groups, garden clubs and 
growers are a part of the Floral Com- 
mittee for the 200th Anniversary. With 
the recent announcement that this cele- 
bration will be centered around the 
Plaza and in Old Town, help is needed 
from these botanical groups to make 
the celebration a "blooming success." 



OCTOBER -NOVEMBER, 1967 



17 



tjucltsias Of 1967 



by Annabelle Stubbs 



NOW THAT most of the new 
Fuchsias have bloomed, rested 
and started blooming again, 
we can evaluate their performance and 
choose the ones we wish to adopt per- 
manently. These are some we have 
chosen. 

Two Fuchsias are outstanding in our 
garden this year because of their 
growth habits. Robin is a large 



double trailer, corolla a dianthus 
purple that fades to bright red. Sepals 
are white. Diana is also a large 
double trailer that is a really unusual 
color, described as light marbled lav- 
ender that fades to bright old rose. 
Very wide white sepals. Both of these 
Fuchsias have been in bloom contin- 
uously all summer, and make a very 
large full basket because of their fine 




branching habit. Also the size of the 
bloom seems to stay approximately the 
same. 

The Phoenix is a large double 
basket type. Lilac corolla and long 
rosy sepals that flare out and gradu- 
ally turn straight up giving the effect 
of wings. The foliage is small, stems 
wiry and self branching. It is very 
floriferous. 

Two uprights we like are 
Buddha, a large double with long 
white sepals and a glowing wine-col- 
ored corolla, large dark green foliage; 
and Caesar, which has a huge 
double bloom, the corolla is purple 
fading to burgundy, the sepals are red. 
When the sepals open, the petals of 



Fuchsia Spellbound which lived up 
to its name in the interest it created 
at the Fair, is one of the largest in 
size so far. It is violet and creamy 
white. Photo by Betty Mackintosh 



18 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



the corolla curl, forming a rose-shaped 
bloom. 

Either of these can be grown in a 
basket, but must be pinched early and 
often. In fact this must be started im- 
mediately after pruning. However, a 
good upright can be trained to be a 
spectacular pillar type in a compara- 
tively short time, and the blooms show 
to quite as much advantage as in a 
basket. 

To start a pillar Fuchsia, select a 
plant with two or three good leaders, 
or use two plants with strong upright 
leaders. Fill a large pot with a suit- 
able mix and put a redwood stake in 
the center. Plant your Fuchsias as 
close as possible to this stake, and as 
they grow, begin to tie them to the 
stake. Do not take off the lateral 
shoots, but pinch out the lateral tips 
when they have developed two sets of 
leaves. Never pinch the tips of the 
leaders until they reach the top of 
the stake. Continue pinching the la- 
terals as they branch. Do not allow 
bloom to develop until the full height 
is reached. Then pinch the leaders. 
Continue pinching all over the plant. 
Branches that become heavy should be 
inconspicuously tied back to the stake. 
Do not allow any long branches to 
form along the pillar as these will 
droop, and detract from the pillar ef- 
fect. Discontinue pinching when you 
see buds forming, or approximately six 
weeks before you want to exhibit your 
plant. 

During the growing period it is 
important to turn the plant a quarter 
turn every week so that the light ex- 
posure will be uniform. This should 
be done with any type of Fuchsia in 
a container, otherwise the plant will 
grow toward the light and become 
one sided. 

Satellite '65 is a Fuchsia that is 
very well adapted to this treatment. 
This is a large single upright. Corolla 
dark red that fades to bright red with 
streaks of white. Sepals are white. 



Genni is a large semi-double bas- 
ket type with long red tube and 
flaring sepals, single white corolla with 
white petaloids that lie back against 
the sepals. The blooms have long 
stems, causing the flower to hang 
away from the branch. It is a good 
grower and heavy bloomer and will 
delight admirers of Texas Long- 
horn. We think it is easier to grow. 

Temptation is a large double 
basket type. The corolla is blue pur- 
ple, very compact. Sepals are white. 
This is quite a lot like our star of 
the show for this year, Spellbound, 
one of the largest and finest Fuchsias 
in its color class that we have ever 
seen. The white buds achieve a 
tremendous size before opening to 
show the deep violet corolla with 
occasional streaks of dusty pink. 
The corolla flares wide and fades to 
a bright purple. This Fuchsia is still 
in short supply but will undoubtedly 
be plentiful next spring because of 
popular demand. 

We are very fortunate to have in 
our Southern California area Mr. Roy 
Walker, one of the outstanding Fuch- 
sia hybridizers of our time. Mr. Walker 
is the hybridizer of Spellbound, 
Temptation, Genni and Buddha, 
among many others. 

Diana and Robin were hybrid- 
ized by Mr. Charles Kennett, The 
Phoneix by Mr. Horace Tiret, and 
Caesar by Mr. Robert Castro. These 
hybridizers are all in the San Fran- 
cisco area. 

CULTURAL NOTES 

A potting mix we have found very 
successful with our Fuchsias is four- 
fifths nitrolized redwood sawdust; one- 



fifth sand; and a granulated slow-re- 
lease balanced fertilizer. 

Keeping the surface of the con- 
tainer clear of all fallen leaves and 
blooms is very important. If they are 
allowed to accumulate they will mold 
and create an unhealthy soil condition. 
Any moss forming on the surface 
should also be removed. 

Spraying should be done on a regu- 
lar schedule and stepped up when 
necessary for control of pests such as 
aphis, white fly, red spider mite and 
caterpillars. We use a systemic spray. 

In using any type of spray it is 
important to use a mask. The painter's 
masks available in some paint stores 
are helpful, or you can make one of 
several layers of gauze. 

When pruning, remember that Fuch- 
sias bloom only on new growth. Prune 
after all danger of frost is past. 

PREVIEWS 

We have seen three new Fuchsias 
to be introduced in 1968. Trade 
Winds, a huge round light pink bud 
that opens to a very delicate pinkish 
ivory corolla. The sepals turn up and 
the corolla flares into a fluffy ball. 
The Spoiler, another very large 
Fuchsia with pink sepals and a purple 
corolla. Opens wide with many flar- 
ing petals. White Galore, a medium 
double near-white trailer. Lovely form 
and good growing habit. 

For general information about all 
phases of Fuchsia growing, attend the 
meetings of the San Diego Fuchsia 
Society. Scheduled meetings are listed 
in the Club Calendar on the inside 
back cover of California Garden 
magazine. 



The Stubbs Blue Ribbon Fuchsia 
display at the 1967 Fair includes 
blossoms from miniature to giant, 
tree, bush and pendant varieties. 

Photo by Mackintosh 




OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 1967 



19 



farming *Jke Sea ^oz Water i 



/ 



Hope of Meeting Critical World 

Fresh Water Needs Seen In 

Large-Scale Desalting Plants 



The time-worn nautical phrase, 
"Water, water everywhere but 
not a drop to drink," is on the 
verge of becoming obsolete. 

In the face of a steadily developing 
shortage of fresh water in many parts 
of the world, scientists have turned to 
the biggest water source of all — the 
oceans — for the solution. The key: 
getting rid of the salt. 

Fresh Water Needs 

Demand for fresh water will prob- 
ably double in the next 20 years, be- 
cause world population is increasing 
at an alarming rate. This means that 
billions more people will need to 
drink. These same people will require 
untold tons of additional foodstuffs, 
which, in turn, will mean that more 
land must be irrigated to provide addi- 
tional crops. Burgeoning population 
also means creation and expansion of 
industries which gobble up water in 
huge amounts. 

The U.S. will require nearly 600 
billion gallons of fresh water daily for 
all uses (domestic, industrial and agri- 
cultural) by 1984. We'll need nearly 
400 billion gallons per day just for 
industrial use by 1980; — double what 
we are using today. 

Increasing populations, continuing 



severe droughts and widespread fresh 
water pollution are causing critical 
shortages in many other areas of the 
world. A United Nations survey of 
43 countries, made two years ago, re- 
vealed that scores of areas now have 
a really acute shortage of fresh water. 
Of 12 areas surveyed in Asia alone, 
eight estimated their 1970 require- 
ments at more than double their 1962 
levels. Most of them don't have that 
much fresh water available. 

"Per capita water consumption," 
says the UN report, "is so small in 
certain areas that it is barely adequate 
to meet the drinking requirements of 
the inhabitants." The report also 
stated that, in general, water shortage 
is the principal limiting factor to eco- 
nomic development in the areas 
surveyed. 

These conditions have forced coun- 
tries to look for ways to supplement 
their fresh water supply. Desalination 
(converting salt water to fresh) ap- 
pears to be the answer. In fact, desali- 
nation already is providing the answer 
in some of the arid areas of the world. 
Kuwait, an oil-rich but arid nation on 
the Persian Gulf, has had a desalina- 
tion plant for several years. Bermuda, 
Aruba, Curacao and the Virgin Islands 
are also producing desalted water. The 



seacoast cities of Taranto, Italy, and 
Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R., have desalina- 
tion plants. Israel, Cyprus, Malta, 
Sicily, Tunisia, Mexico, Hong Kong 
and the Canary Islands are planning 
plants. U.S. plants now in operation 
are at Freeport, Texas, where the 
Office of Saline Water, U.S. Depart- 
ment of the Interior, is turning out 
fresh water from the Gulf of Mexico 
and selling it to the city; Webster, 
South Dakota, where brackish water 
(less salt content than sea water) is 
being converted to fresh; and the U.S. 
Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. 
The last was formerly located at San 
Diego, California, but was dismantled 
and shipped to the base when Fidel 
Castro cut off the supply of fresh 
water. 

Upcoming desalination plants in the 
U.S. include a 2.5 million gallons per 
day plant at Key West, Florida; a 1.2 
million gallons per day OSW demon- 
stration plant at San Diego; and a 150 
mgpd plant for the Metropolitan Wa- 
ter District of Southern California. In 
the conceptual design stage at Oak 
Ridge National Laboratories is a huge 
250 mgpd plant destined for a north- 
east seacoast location in the 1975-80 
period. 

Evidence of spurting interest in de- 



20 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



salination was shown a year ago when 
representatives of 64 nations showed 
up for the First International Sympo- 
sium of Desalination in Washington, 
D. C. President Johnson provided 
added impetus by calling on all parties 
to launch an "aggressive and imagina- 
tive" program to advance the tech- 
nology. He predicted that within 10 
years desalted water will be the cheap- 
est, and in some cases, the only way 
to obtain new water supplies in many 
parts of the world. 

Cost Coming Down 

Desalination technology has reached 
the stage where not just fresh water, 
but economical fresh water from the 
sea, is possible. Plants in operation 
now are turning out fresh water for 
around $1 per thousand gallons. In- 
dustry leaders believe that they could 
build desalting plants from 50 to 150 
mgpd capacity — in combination with 
nuclear-fueled electric power plants — 
that would produce fresh water in the 
30-to-40 cent range. Their long-range 
goal is 20-cent water (Average cost of 
purified fresh water, delivered, in U.S. 
communities today is 42 cents per 
thousand gallons, although figures vary 
considerably from city to city.) 

The chief method of desalting water 
on a large scale today is by distillation. 
Huge amounts of metals will be re- 
quired for the plants that are now 
on the drawing boards. For example, 
Anaconda American Brass Company, 
a major supplier of copper alloy con- 
denser tubes for desalination plants, 
estimates that, for the previously men- 
tioned 150 mgpd plant for southern 
California, expected to be in operation 
by 1971, a total of 30 million pounds 
(more than 18,000 miles) of copper- 
nickel tubes will be required. The 
company already has received the larg- 
est desalting plant tubing contract ever 
awarded by OSW — for that agency's 
San Diego Saline Water Test Facility, 
which will be a partial cross-section of 
a 50 mgpd plant. 



Evolution of Desalination 

Distillation is probably as old as 
history, but today it is far more com- 
plicated applied on a large scale. The 
method in its simplest form goes back 
at least as far as Aristotle, who men- 
tioned about 2,400 years ago that 
when salty water is boiled and the va- 
pors collected and allowed to recon- 
dense in a separate chamber, the con- 
densed vapor becomes drinkable water. 

The early alchemists observed that 
fresh water could be obtained by dis- 
tilling seawater in a retort (glass 
vessel). 

Sir Richard Hawkins, contemporary 
of Sir Francis Drake, the explorer, 
described a shipboard method of sea- 
water distillation for drinking water 
in 1593. 

When ocean-going ships were being 
converted from sail to steam propul- 
sion in the 19th century, small on- 
board distillation units were installed 
to produce fresh water from seawater 
for the ship's boilers and for drinking. 
They have continued to be used on 
large passenger liners freighters and 
naval vessels. 

Then came small shore-based plants. 
Most of them, up to the 1950's were 
built by the British. It has only been 
in the past several years that American 
firms have gotten into the design and 
construction of these plants in a big 
way. The market suddenly has become 
a major one. 

To give you an idea of the potential 
size of this market, forecast by OSW 
as a 7 5 -year growth industry, consider 
the history of government appropria- 
tions to this same agency: in 1953, 
OSW received $175,000 for research 
and development. The appropriation 
for 1967 will be $27,500,000. 

THE ABC'S OF DISTILLATION 

The dictionary defines distillation as 
"the evaporation and subsequent con- 
densation of a liquid, as when water 
is boiled in a retort and the steam is 
condensed in a cool receiver." 



In the big desalination plants now 
operating, or in the planning stage, the 
chief method of desalination — multi- 
stage flash distillation is an adaptation 
of the basic principle of distillation. 
Here's how it works: 

Seawater is heated and fed into a 
chamber where the pressure is lowered. 
A portion of the water "flashes" into 
vapor, which is condensed on the 
outer surface of the heat exchanger 
tubes. The resulting condensate is suit- 
able for potable or industrial water. 
The process is repeated through many 
"stages" at decreasing pressures, to 
provide a large volume of desalted 
water. 

WATER FACTS 
DID YOU KNOW? 
1 — that three-fourths of the globe is 
covered with water. Of this, 97 
percent is contained in the oceans. 
2 — that the oceans contain 3.5 per 
cent salt. This rules them out for 
human consumption, for the body 
can't tolerate more than 2 per cent. 
3 — that if they dried up, the oceans 
of the world would yield A l / 2 
million cubic miles of salt — or 
141/2 times the bulk of the entire 
continent of Europe above the 
high water mark. 
4 — that it takes 270 tons of water to 
make one ton of steel, and 4,700 
tons of water to make one ton 
of synthetic rubber. 
5 — that some modern life rafts are 
equipped with a compact solar still 
which produces fresh water from 
seawater by means of the sun's 
energy. 
6 — that Moroccan and Green fisher- 
men have long guided their boats 
to a predetermined spot in the 
Mediterranean to take aboard a 
supply of fresh water? At this 
point, fresh water springs send 
water to the surface of the sea that 
is practically uncontaminated by salt. 
7 — that New York City alone uses up 
more than 1 billion gallons of 
water every day. 



KNOW - GROW - SHOW PLANTS 



Bernardo Beautiful and Garden 
Club has taken a subscription to Cal- 
ifornia Garden to be sent as a gift 
to the President of the National Rose 
Society of New Zealand who was a 
recent guest of the Fred W. Walters 
and of the club. 

Why not follow this thoughtful 
gesture and give a subscription to 
California Garden to all your visit- 
ing friends who marvel at your healthy 
well-grown plants whose names and 
growth habits are new to them. They'll 



admire and emulate your skill, — the 
more as they read. 

KNOW your plants, and your 
neighbor's plants so you can recog- 
nize them and call them by name. 
Join Horticultural Classes at the Floral 
Building or the Public Schools Night 
Classes. 

GROW your plants the right way, 
which means knowing how they grew 
in their native environment. Read 
Calendar of Care in the second sec- 
tion of California Garden and 



learn daily care from experts. 

SHOW your plants to friends and 
visitors and then enter them in San 
Diego's many Flower Shows. These 
come every few years to your friends 
'Back East' while ours almost pile on 
top of each other every year. 

Be glad you live in 'growing' San 
Diego and celebrate by planning and 
planting a flowering tree or shrub in 
front of your house to tell the world 
as the world drives by. 



OfTORFR - NOVEMBER 1967 



21 



Calendar of Care 



Galben Cake iel October anc) TLoCembeh. 




b\j Kobelt H. Ualoin 



NOW IS the time to do all of the 
things you neglected to do in 
September. Plant the bulbs 
you have always intended and if you 
have hesitated because you dislike the 
foliage of bulbs when they are through 
blooming, why not plant them in gal- 
lon cans to place in the flower border 
when they start to bloom. Bury the 
can to the rim and after they are 
through blooming take them up and 
put them in an out of the way place 
in the garden, but be sure to feed 
them and keep watered until the tops 
die back. The soil mix for bulbs is 
one-quarter planter mix and three- 
quarter soil; use about one-quarter 
level tablespoon of bone meal worked 
thoroughly into the mix for each one 
gallon can. 

Have you ever wondered why so 
few people use annuals for color at 
the foundation of the house? You 
hear so many say they have given up 
on trying to grow bedding plants be- 
cause most of them die within a 
period of two or three weeks. The 



possible reason for this is a lack of 
adequate soil preparation and the other 
is watering. They plant today and 
tomorrow the soil seems dry so they 
water again and the same thing every 
day. A newly set out seedling uses 
very little water the first week it is 
transplanted so this every day water- 
ing forces all of the air out of the 
soil and the plant drowns. Just what 
is adequate soil preparation? The first 
don't is — do not use steer manure in 
preparing flower beds unless you in- 
tend to plant 10 to 12 weeks after you 
work it in and keep the area watered 
during the interval. Planting imme- 
diately after working steer manure 
into the soil has been one of the prin- 
cipal reasons for plants dying in gar- 
dens. Use planting mixes and be gen- 
erous with them and be sure to read 
what the manufacturer recommends 
and in most cases use twice his recom- 
mendation. He's modest. His recom- 
mendation is the minimum require- 
ment. If you are one of those for- 
tunate home owners on a lot that was 



already at natural grade with virgin 
top soil you probably had phenomenal 
success in growing most anything you 
planted. This was no doubt true the 
first two or three years then things 
just didn't respond as well from then 
on. Unless we add compost or soil 
amendments in good quantity each year 
to replace the humus used, our soil 
goes down hill in fertility. 

If you are starting out from scratch 
with nothing planted around your 
home, you will be appalled at the cost 
of putting in a lawn, especially if you 
are doing the work yourself. Very 
few lawns are installed with enough 
soil amendments worked into the soil. 
Adequate amounts can add as much as 
five cents a square foot to the cost of 
the lawn. Too many home owners be- 
come economy minded when they gar- 
den. With a lawn it is impossible to 
add soil amendments after the lawn is 
up and unfortunately it is impossible 
to pour enough chemicals on to make 
a poor lawn a good lawn. If you are 
fortunate to have a good lawn, be gen- 



22 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



erous with fertilizer now and your 
lawn will stay green through the win- 
ter. Deep soak fruit trees now and all 
deep rooted shrubs and ornamental 
trees. 

November is your last chance to 
plant spring blooming bulbs. Start 
planting cool season vegetables now. 
If you have neglected to stake and tie 
newly-set-out trees do so now. Be sure 
to place the stake so that the prevail- 
ing winds will blow the tree toward 
the stake, not away from it. If it is a 
larger than five gallon size tree, use 
guy wires also to hold the stake. Any 
good garden book will have illustra- 
tions showing how to do this. If rains 
are spotty and light this month, con- 
tinue to water hardy material. 

If your deciduous fruit trees lose 
all their leaves this month, spray with 
a fungicide. Consult your nurseryman 
for the right fungicide to use on 
peaches and the proper one for apri- 
cots. It is a good time to clean up the 
garden and spray to kill off insect pests 
and fungus that harbor in the gar- 
den debris during the winter. 




GIVE 

CALIFORNIA 

GARDEN 

FOR CHRISTMAS 

Why not plan your Christmas 
shopping now! Give Cali- 
fornia Garden for six 
Christmas gifts a year to those you 
love and admire the most. Sit down 
now and make your list of garden 
buffs or garden beginners. 

No Christmas mob — no tossed 
merchandise — no frayed nerves or 
aching feet or head — no standing in 
line and paying for gift wrapping — 
no parcel post mailers or express car- 
tons to wrap and tug and haul. 

Do it the easy way, clip the Sub- 
scription Form to California Garden 
in this issue, and make out your own 
subscription for 1966. Attach your 




SHORELINE NURSERY 

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Big Selection of Blooming Roses 

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list of Gift Subscriptions with name, 
street address, City, State and Zip 
Code, for each gift recipient, with 
$2.50 for U. S. and $3.50 for foreign 
postage (Ask for Airmail rates). Mail 
them to the Floral Association office, 
and you will receive a receipt and a 
beautiful, tasteful Gift Announcement 
to mail to each friend as a Christmas 
card. You also are giving to yourself 
the gift of leisure and serenity to sit 
and savor the true meaning of Christ- 
mas. Don't forget your gardener 
either. You might both profit. You 
might even reap a special bonus of a 
bunch of radishes or carnations, grown 
according to California Garden. 

Don't forget your Senior Citizen 
friends, even if bed-ridden or cooped 
in a small apartment or trailer. Cali- 
fornia Garden can bring back a 
whiff of the outdoors and a host of 
memories of their active days. 

Spread color and smiles with Cali- 
fornia Garden as a special gift for 
special people. Do it now — today! 



WANTS & OFFERS 

Buyers & Sellers Column 

List your surplus and your 
needs at a buck-aline, 



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MONTH-BY-MONTH 

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Revised Edition, 1967, with Official 
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For Your Gardening Pleasure and 
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7\ 



Orchids 



by Byron H. Geer 

San Diego County Orchid Society 



HAVE you taken a long close 
look at your outdoor Orchids 
lately? Those little nubbins 
popping out from the base of the 
bulbs just might be bloom spikes, you 
know. The first one of the season 
showed up in my Cymbidium yard on 
September 1st, but it was far enough 
along in development to indicate that 
it must have been readily visible some 
weeks earlier if I had been observant. 
The yearly hunt is on, and we are all 
trying to hurry up bloom. Even though 
September and October are usually hot 
months here and growth doesn't slow 
down appreciably, most Cymbidium 
growers change fertilizer formula about 
the end of August. The switch is made 
from high nitrogen to high phospho- 
rus, and the thinking is that con- 
tinued high nitrogen will promote 
growth at the expense of bloom. From 
observation over a period of years, I 
would say that this does indeed hap- 
pen with the constant, unchanging use 
of the extremely high nitrogen foods, 
but I have never been convinced that 
a total, or very nearly total, cutoff of 



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nitrogen is beneficial either to growth 
or bloom. My personal preference is a 
more evenly balanced diet throughout 
the year. Best results for me seem to 
come from alternating feedings with 
fish emulsion 10-5-5 and 4-10-8. The 
theory, and any good plant biologist 
could undoubtedly make a sieve of it, 
is that a healthy, growing plant will 
use what it needs or wants and ignore 
the rest of it. Now I am perfectly 
well aware that certain plants slough 
bloom if fed at the wrong time of 
year, so I don't suggest this feeding 
schedule for the entire garden every 
second week. But unlike the other 
plants in question here, Orchids do 
not generally have a well denned dor- 
mant season. True, many of the Or- 
chids do require a short resting period 
either before or after blooming. Den- 
drobium culture, for instance, is re- 
plete with 'do's and dont's' along 
these lines, and the Cattleya alliance 
normally asks for a tapering off of 
both food and water after blooming 
until there is evidence of new root 
activity. Put simply, all the Orchids 



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should be fed and watered in direct 
relation to their growth cycles. There 
is no indication whatsoever that the 
Cymbidiums have a dormant period 
as such. They are constantly develop- 
ing either new growths or bloom 
spikes, and quite frequently both at 
the same time. This being the case, it 
would seem only logical to promote 
both growth and bloom with a reason- 
ably balanced feeding all year long. 
Nevertheless, most growers and most 
books on the subject agree that six 
months high nitrogen and six months 
high phosphorus do the best job. So 
be it. I'm enough of a renegade to 
try something else, and that something 
else works better for me. The impor- 
tant thing in any case, if that they have 
the food elements that they need at 
any time they may need them, and this 
means, if nothing else, the application 
of fertilizers at frequent and regularly 
scheduled intervals. 

I would like to think that all is 
sweetness and light in the growing of 
Orchids, but apparently not even a 
pleasurable hobby is without its pit- 
falls. We have the reputation of being 
the snobs of the horticultural world 
and there are times when we deserve 
it. Orchid growers as a class seem to 
be a fairly uppity group. They are 
likely to have intense likes and dis- 
likes and to be intolerant of the pre- 
ferences of others. Damning with faint 
praise is by no means uncommon, and 
the hobbyist who proudly displays a 
bloom of which he is particularly fond, 
or a plant which he thinks is exception- 
ally well grown is all too apt to get 
an unenthusiastic response. 

All well and good if the lack of en- 
thusiasm is based on a good back- 
ground knowledge of what is good 
and what is not; all too often this is 
not the case and the self-appointed 
judge is setting forth his own personal 
tastes. This sort of thing can be, and 
is, discouraging to the neophyte 
grower, to the point that many a 
would-be Orchidist has given up in 
disgust. A cardinal rule in the Orchid 
world (indeed in any non-professional 
garden endeavor) should be 'If you 
can't find something to praise, over- 
look those things you could knock.' 
Even though some comments are thinly 
masked as constructive criticism, they 
are a certain deflater to the ego. Tell- 
ing a hobbyist that his first bloom 
seedling is not worth giving house 
room or that his cultural practices and 
results are not as good as Joe's, is like 
telling him that his children are brats. 
It may be true, but he certainly doesn't 
want to hear it. 



24 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



Roses 



by Mary Jane and J. Wells Hershey 

San Diego Rose Society 

VEN THOUGH it is October by minded us that right now is the time 



"^ the calendar, Southern Califor 
nia rose gardens should be put- 
ting on a striking display of rose 
blooms, with a substance that chal- 
lenges the bushes' Spring bloom. Sub- 
stance in a rose is "the quantity and 
quality of matter in the petals — the 
component materials of the petals. It 
constitutes the texture, crispness, firm- 
ness, thickness and roughness of the 
petals, and determines the degree of 
stability and durability of form, and 
the keeping quality of the rose," states 
C. H. Lewis in his book, The Judg- 
ing of Roses which was adopted 
as the official Judges' Manual by the 
American Rose Society. A rose with 
substance comes from a bush which 
has been given good cultural care, 
proper balanced feeding and watering. 
Good gardening habits which were 
developed in the spring and early sum- 
mer and continued during the long hot 
summer should be reaping a beautiful 
harvest of roses. We have just passed 
the "mid-season slump" as far as rose 
growing is concerned. During this 
period of time, when the bushes ap- 
pear neglected, with blooms so few 
and so small, so stunted and so burned 
by the hot summer sun, your continual 
care was very important. While the 
temperature on our outside thermom- 
eter was 90 degrees in the shade and 
over 100 degrees in the sun, it was a 
comfort to know that the four to six 
inches of mulch on the rose bed was 
retaining the moisture in the soil, and 
was keeping its roots cool. Keep water- 
ing, remove the faded flowers and the 
bushes will continue to bloom until 
January. 

Word association in gardening is 
very interesting. Thinking in terms of 
rose growing, as soon as the word 
"January" was written, we thought of 
"bare root roses, which made us think 
of planting roses, which made us think 
of preparing the soil for a new rose 
garden or digging the hole for a new 
rose bush, which made us think of 
George and Leah Davidson." "When 
you are planting a new rose bush," 
says George, "NEVER put a $3.50 
bush in a fifty cent hole," which re- 



we 



to prepare the soil for a new rose bush 
or a new rose garden. 

Intrigued by George's maxim 
asked what did he consider to be a fifty 
cent hole. "Well," he answered, "some 
people buy a good rose and then dig 
a hole, plant it and hope for the best. 
Their soil has never been tested and 
nothing was added to it. No prepara- 
tion was made. This is my idea of a 
50c hole!" 

The following procedure is the 
Davidsons' formula for planting roses, 
and judging the results by the trophies 
and ribbons they have won we agree 
that the rose bush should have equal 
rights and should not be given a sub- 
standard home. First in order to de- 



termine what type of soil you have, 
take a sample of it to your nurseryman 
for analysis. The Davidsons found that 
they had good soil which could be 
used with additives. They space their 
roses 32 inches on center — three roses 
for every eight feet. Holes are dug 
20 inches long by 20 inches wide and 
are 20 inches in depth. The top soil is 
removed and used in the following 
mixture: Three parts soil and two parts 
Planter Mix (University of Calif, for- 
mula), 1 shovel of Kellogg's Humi- 
site, 1 handful of Bone Meal and 1 
handful of Blood Meal. He places the 
mixture in the hole at least two months 
before he plants the rose bush, re- 
moving it to make a cone on which 
to plant the bush. 

It is not too soon to think of loca- 
tion, and changing location of your 
roses. Roses will grow in any open 
location, with free circulation of air. 
They must have sun, but do better if 
they have some shade from the hot 
afternoon sun. One more thought — it 
is a larger task in January, to dig the 
holes and prepare the soil, than it is in 
October, our blue and gold month — 

(Continued on page 30) 




G. S. JOHNSON ROSE NURSERY 

rf|&\ Rose Specialists 

Bare-root Roses - Climbers - and Tree Roses 

available JAN-MAR ... or plant from cans all year 
Spray Materials and Fertilizers 



22 YEARS IN SAME LOCATION 



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OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 1967 



25 



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Fuchsias 

by Morrison W. Doty 
San Diego Fuchsia Society 



AT THE END of a long, hot, dry 
summer some fuchsias always 
appear tired and under-par, even 
as you and I sometimes do. There will 
be some growers complaining of losses 
of specimen plants from the heat, 
drouth, or perhaps other more obscure 
causes. Puzzling as this may often 



Nicotine Sulphate combined with a 
mild soap spray will control it, and the 
seldom found microscopic Cyclamen 
mite as well. 

There should be very little need for 
pest control of Fuchsias that are well 
fed, watered, and cared for, with regu- 
lar sharp water spraying, and mild 



seem, it usually hinges upon the lack preventive pest sprays. We still prefer 

of proper maintenance of a semblance the safe old rotenone, pyrethrum and 

of the cool moist atmosphere of their nicotine sprays for such sensitive shade 

rain-forest origin, during excessive plants as Fuchsias, rather than the new 

heat or dry winds. It is possible, how- Systemics, or the most toxic of other 

ever, to injure or lose plants from too petroleum originations, that kill earth- 



much moisture, as from excess of peat, 
sponge-rock, etc., too much moisture- 
holding elements in your soil mixture 
plus poor drainage and too heavy 
shade. But irregular, erratic, or inex- 
perienced care in watering, feeding 
and looking after plants during ad- 
verse weather and vacation cause most 
summer plant losses. Although nor- 
mally more disease-free than most 
plants, Fuchsias may suffer from in- 
sect pests, especially the older, tired 
end-of -season plants. Red spider mites, 
microscopic in size, cause browning 
and dropping of leaves, and thrip, also 



worms, and are so poisonous. If mala- 
thion, DDT, or kelthane solutions are 
used, as for Red Spider, etc., always 
dilute to mildest effective form, to 
avoid defoliation, or injury. 

This is a good time of year to trim 
straggly plants that have grown far 
out, back to proper shape again. If 
they are old and tired, their water and 
food should be gradually reduced to 
make them go into dormancy for the 
winter. Younger, vigorous plants of 
favorite varieties may well be pruned 
lightly and fed for your enjoyment of 
a longer blooming season, even into 



almost invisible to the naked eye, may December. Many growers, even some 



cause streaks in leaves and flowers, and 
eventual defoliation just as the red 
spider infestation. White Fly, appear- 
ing first as waxy white larvae on the 
under-side of leaves, then hatching 



nurseries, prefer most of their main 
pruning of Fuchsias now in the Fall, 
claiming less risk of frost, dieback, or 
bleeding. But most authorities still 
favor late February pruning in this 



into tiny dust-like flies may make the area. You may well try more drastic 



leaves curl and droop. If white cot- 
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they will be Mealy Bug. Though it is 
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in gardens its infestation may be bad. 



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cutting back on less favored plants 
than you dared before in Fall to learn 
just what you can do with this most 
adaptable plant. Although good prun- 
ing may mean cutting only about two- 
thirds of new growth off, they will 
usually withstand cutting back even 
beyond the first three or four nodes, or 
even removing all the green growth, 
though this is not recommended. 

Cuttings of your best varieties from 
early Fall pruning put down in sharp 
sand with a bit of peat or leaf mold 
added, still have time to get a good 
start. Some growers use sponge-rock 
in starting flats, but the rooting mix 
above has proved almost 100 per cent 
successful for us, when put in a warm 
nook and kept properly moist. 

Remember to check container plants 
(continued on page 30) 



26 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



Dahlias 

by Larry Sisk 

San Diego County Dahlia Society 



FOR dahlia gardeners this is a dif- 
ferent time of year from that of 
other floriculture hobbyists. It's 
planning time — planning for next 
year's garden. 

At the same time, gardening care 
goes on in tune with growing needs 
and conditions. It is the end of the 
flowering season, a time when there 
are specific requirements. 

In the planning, results of dahlia 
shows in California and throughout 
the nation — and possibly in England 
and Holland — are reviewed to check 
the list of winning varieties; hobby 



and memorized between now and the 
spring planting season. Not all grow- 
ing stock is obtained from the catalogs 
and commercial growers; the biggest 
and best source is the other dahlia 
fans. Thus another part of the plan- 
ning is starting deals for swaps of 
surplus roots for wanted varieties. The 
place to make the deals and to get 
planting stock economically is at 
meetings of the dahlia society (the 
fourth Tuesday each month in the 
Floral Association Building) . 

Dahlia gardening care at this time 
of year includes hardening off the 



showmen and growers soon learn that plants so the year's crop of roots will 

the way to win on the exhibition mature for good keeping quality. This 

bench is to grow winning varieties. means keeping the plants growing as 

So, the grower plans to add any new long as possible before the normal 

winner to his planting plans. dieback. 

Consider the San Diego show as To accomplish this, continued wa- 



an example: The large peach-colored 
Surprise was judged best in the show, 
and the beautiful white medium for- 
mal Sterling Silver was runner up 
and best in its size. Among other top 
varieties were the large lavender, 
Lavengro; the medium yellow formal, 
First Lady; the medium bright orange 
cactus, Priscilla; the huge bronze in- 
formal decorative, Croyden Master- 
piece, the current candidate for larg- 
est in show; the white informal Lula 
Pattie; the popular red miniature ball, 
Rothesay Superb, and the best pom- 
pons, Carol Newstead, a new yellow, 
and Czar Willo, deep purple. 

The winner of best in Orange 
County was the old-time white cactus 
favorite, Florence Chadwick; in In- 
glewood, the large purple Jocondo, 
and in the Southern California show 
at Bellflower, the dark red cactus 
favorite from South Africa, Juanita. 

There were only a few variations 
at the other shows from the San Diego 
list of additional top winners, positive 
proof that winning varieties are those 
with winning qualities. So, if the 
gardener doesn't have them, he must 
get them for 1968. 

Part of the planning also includes 
ordering catalogs from the specialist 
suppliers, so that they can be studied 



tering and fighting of insects and 
mildew are necessary. Some growers 
will have fed the "patch" one last 
time with potash only; potash gives 
strength to the plant and adds vigor 
to the roots. 

The ideal is to keep the plants 
growing until mid-November. But if 
the natural dieback comes early and 
the plant loses vigor and turns brown, 
the culture needed is to cut off the 
plant four to six inches or so from 
the ground and let the soil dry out 
and the roots mature until Thanksgiv- 
ing time or later. In the San Diego 



coastal areas it isn't unusual for gar- 
deners to leave the roots in the ground 
until Christmas or later. 

In frost-free areas and where there 
is little danger of continued wetness 
in the soil, or good drainage, roots 
may be left and preserved in the 
ground even up to spring planting 
time. Gardeners who grow dahlias 
just for color and who don't worry 
about exhibition quality have excellent 
success by just leaving this year's roots 
in well-drained soil to grow next 
year's flowers. 

The confirmed showman-hobbyist 
must dig, separate and store his roots 
to maintain exhibition qualities. If he 
doesn't want to do this chore he might 
decide to let this year's roots go and 
purchase a new supply for the next 
planting. For the confirmed fan, how- 
ever, mastering the technique of sav- 
ing roots from year to year is one of 
the magnetic facets of the hobby, and 
he listens avidly at dahlia society 
meetings to learn how others do it. 

In addition to watering so long as 
the plants continue to grow, main- 
taining superiority over insects and 
mildew is necessary. The worst insects 
at this time of year are red spiders, 
aphids and caterpillars. The way to 
defeat the spiders is to use malathion 
regularly, with kelthane added or sub- 
stituted if an infestation starts. Ma- 
lathion will take care of the aphids 
and most of the caterpillars. If the 
latter are bothersome, some gardeners 
add a pinch of arsenate of lead to 
the spray, but this must be used care- 
fully where there are children or pets. 

Mildew is not as hard to fight now 
as a few years ago. Any nurseryman 
can recommend one of the effective 
antidotes, including the new mildew 
systemic. And as a last resort, there 
always is dusting sulphur. 

The confirmed fan isn't discouraged 
by these hazards; he's already plan- 
ning next year's planting. 



LOAMITE 



The Soil Amendment specified by professional 
rdeners and commercial growers 



gar< 



and 



MILORGANITE 



The only true Organic Fertilizer that supplies the humus 
and necessary nutrients for San Diego soils. 



OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 1967 



27 



PEOPLE 
WHO KNOW 



Use 



ARAGRO 

10-5-5 

Blended with Deodorized 
Organic Fish Concentrate 

ALL PURPOSE 
LIQUID FERTILIZER 

For LAWNS— DICHONDRA 
SHRUBS— FLOWERS 
VEGETABLES— FRUITS 



FULL BLOOM 
AHEAD 



Use 



ARAGRO 

4-10-8 

Blended with Deodorized 
Organic Fish Concentrate 

Specially formulated for 

LARGE FLOWERS 
MORE FRUIT FLAVOR 



WHEN 

NATURE NEEDS 

A HELPING HAND 

— and She Usually Does 



FEED YOUR 
FUCHSIAS — AZALEAS 
LAWNS — DICHONDRA 
AND AFRICAN VIOLETS 

ARAGRO 

FISH EMULSION 




Irises 



by Bill Van Valkenberg 

San Diego - Imperial Counties Iris Society 



THE IRIS portion of this issue 
will be about spuria irises because 
now is the time to order spurias 
and to plant them in your garden. 

Many gardeners who are very famil- 
iar with the common bearded irises 
have never seen spuria irises. The rea- 
son for this is that the bearded irises 
have been domesticated for hundreds 
of years, but development of spuria 
irises into garden varieties is a rela- 
tively new hybridizing accomplishment. 

Spurias are true irises, but they are 
derived from a different group of 
species than are the bearded garden 
varieties. The two types are so unlike 
that they are genetically incompatible; 
no one yet has been able to make a 
cross between the two. Spurias differ 
from bearded irises in that they are 
taller (up to 5 feet or more), more 
tolerant of heat and wind, less vul- 
nerable to diseases, and generally 
"tougher." Because they are derived 
from species which grow wild in the 
Mediterranean area they do particu- 
larly well in Southern California — 
which has climate similar to that of 
their homeland. 

Spurias come in the same range of 
colors as do the bearded irises, and the 
size of the flowers is about the same. 
Nonetheless, the flowers can be dis- 
tinguished at a glance by the fact that 
the petals of the spuria flower are 
more slender and more rigid that those 
of a bearded iris. Also, every bearded 
iris has a row of whiskers — the 
"beard" — along the top center of each 
lower petal; no spuria has a beard. 
(A spuria blossom more closely re- 
sembles an enlarged Dutch iris, but 
the Dutch irises which are sold by 
commercial florists in the springtime 
are neither spurias nor bearded irises.) 

Most gardeners and iris hobbyists 
who have become acquainted with 
spurias are convinced that spurias are 
better as garden plants, and more 
beautiful as cut flowers, than the 
bearded varieties. Consequently, the 
Spuria Iris Society is one of the fastest 
growing components of the American 
Iris Society. 



Garden varieties of spurias, as well 
as garden varieties of bearded irises, 
can be propagated only by cutting off 
and replanting divisions of the fleshy 
root — properly called a "rhizome." A 
spuria rhizome somewhat resembles a 
small sweet potato; these rhizomes are 
shipped by commercial growers to 
mail-order customers during that sea- 
son when spurias are dormant — which 
is now. The mail order price for a 
modern variety of spuria averages 
about three dollars; some older varie- 
ties cost less. The latest 1967 intro- 
ductions cost up to fifteen dollars each. 

These rhizomes are relatively easy 
to grow. They should be planted 
promptly after receipt. Procedure is to 
bury them in a horizontal position, 
under about two inches of rich soil 
in an area of full sunlight, then water 
them frequently. The plant will sprout 
late in the fall, and the young spuria 
plant quickly becomes an eye catcher 
because of its fine vertical form and 
because of its rigid dark-green leaves 
which often assume an attractive spiral 
twist. The rate of growth during the 
period before blooming is directly de- 
pendent on the amount of water and 
the amount of fertilizer applied; any 
kind of fertilizer is O.K. for spurias. 
In any area which has plenty of warm 
sunshine a new spuria, well cared for 
is likely to send up at least one bloom- 
stalk during the springtime following 
planting. A light dusting of chlordane 
around the plants is recommended just 
before the first buds open; this keeps 
away ants which otherwise may come 
in great numbers to get the fragrant 
nectar from the spuria blossoms. 

The tall graceful bloomstalks can be 
admired and enjoyed in the garden, or 
can be cut before opening (like glads) 
and allowed to open indoors, in water. 
Floral arrangements made with spurias 
are very beautiful and also very long- 
lasting; when an individual blossom 
wilts it can be removed from the 
bloomstalk, after which a second blos- 
som usually will open on the same 
area of the bloomstalk. A single spuria 
blossom also may be used very effec- 



28 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



tively in place of an orchid for mak- 
ing a corsage. 

When the blooming season of any 
plant is over, the gardener's natural 
inclination is to lose interest in that 
plant for a while. In the case of spuria 
irises, this inclination beautifully fits 
the plant's natural cycle. The spuria, 
after blooming, can be utterly ne- 
glected for about five months — during 
which time it gradually will go dor- 
mant. When the tops turn brown and 
unsightly all the foliage may be cut off 
at ground level and removed. The 
rhizome, left completely unattended in 
the ground, will increase and send up 
several bloomstalks the next season. 
With each passing year the clump will 
increase in size; more rhizomes, more 
fans of foliage and more bloomstalks 
and blossoms. By the third year a 
typical spuria has become so well estab- 
lished that many rhizomes may be dug 
up from the outside perimeter of the 
plant — during the dormant season — 
without noticeably disturbing the per- 
formance of the main clump. 

Garden spurias come in a variety of 
solid colors and color combinations, 
with white, yellow, brown, blue, and 
purple predominating. A color de- 
scription of each variety is included 
in the listings which are distributed by 
commercial growers. Spurias can be 
obtained by mail order from two 
Southern California growers: these are 
Walker Ferguson, 1160 North Broad- 
way, Escondido; and the Van Dusen 
Iris Gardens, Descanso, 92016. Either 
of these growers will send a listing 
free of charge in response to a post- 
card request. 

But be warned: if you join the ex- 
panding group of gardeners who are 
growing spurias, you are very likely 
to become another typical enthusiast 
who proclaims to everyone that spurias 
are the most rewarding of all peren- 
nials. 



Commercial and Artistic 

PHOTOS 
BY MACKINTOSH 

320 MOSS AVE., CHULA VISTA 

422-4650 



Cactus and 
Succulents 

by San Diego Cactus & 
Succulent Society 



"Mexican Firecracker" Echeveria 
setosa is named in honor of Mexican 
botanist, A. Echeveria; setosa means 
beset with bristles. This beautiful and 
easily-grown plant is a conspicuous 
cluster of succulent deep green leaves, 
bluntly pointed, covered with bristly 
white hairs, and forming dense ro- 
settes up to five inches across, at the 
tips of short fleshy stems. It freely 
pups near the base, to form large 
wooly masses that sparkle in the sun. 

Bright red, yellow-mouthed bell- 
shaped flowers are produced on slen- 
der arching stems from spring to sum- 
mer. As all Echeverias, setosa is con- 
sidered half-hardy, and a minimum 
winter temperature of 40 should be 
maintained. The soil mixture can be 
quite rich, up to 50/50 sand to soil. 
Water generously during the summer, 
but just enough in the winter to keep 
the leaves from shriveling. 

It is good in almost any gardening 
situation from greenhouse to rock gar- 
den. It is especially easy to grow from 
seed, offsets or leaf cuttings. 

Cotyledon undulata, "Silver Crown" 
is one of thirty species of Cotyledon, 
all natives of South Africa, with the 
exception of C. barbeyi which occurs 
in Abyssinia and southern Arabia. 



"Cotyledon" comes from "kotyle," 
meaning cavity and refers to the cup- 
like leaves of many of the species. 
"Undulata" has reference to the un- 
dulating or wavy margins of the 
leaves. 

It is a strong-growing, bold appear- 
ing sub-shrub, attaining a height of 
one to two feet. Oval fleshy leaves are 
likened to an open fan and are closely 
crowded on stout stems. They are 
bluish-green in color with a powdery 
white coating; the margins are wavy 
and tinged slightly red. Leaves are 
opposite, pointed upwards and are 
three to four inches long, two inches 
in width. This beautiful species has 
clusters of pendent bell-shaped flowers 
about one inch long, which are pro- 
duced on long stalks rising from the 
center of the plant. Flower color is 
creamy orange with red stripes. 

As do most cotyledons, it comes 
readily from cuttings and seed. Cul- 
ture is much the same as Echeverias; — 
rich well drained soil. However, more 
sun will aid the color and keep leaves 
more tightly compact. To keep the 
floury coating, avoid extensive over- 
head watering. A well-grown speci- 
men of C. undulata will be one of the 
most exquisite in a collection. 



HOLD-A-HILL 

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More Decorative at Half the Cost 
of Vertical Retaining Walls 
STOPS EROSION FREE ESTIMATES 100% FINANCING 

HOLD-A-HILL BLOC CO. 

32391/2 Bancroft Drive, Spring Valley, California 
Phone 463-6344 



OCTflRFR . NnVFMRFR lO^ 



29 



SAN DIEGO'S LARGEST 
NURSERY FACILITY 

. . . with complete, personalized at- 
tention to your every garden need. 

LINDA VISTA RD. at MORENA BLVD. 
PHONE 297-4216 




Alice and Allan Zukor 

Validated Customer Parking at Rear of Store 
733 Broadway 239-1228 



RAINFORD 

r lower Shop 




Flowers for all Occasions 
3334 Fifth Ave. 233-7101 



758 

Hillside Drive 

Overlooking La Jolla Shores, just 
up the hill from Torrey Pines Road, or 
down the hill from Mt. Soledad, is 
HILLSIDE NURSERY. Whichever ap- 
proach you take, you'll find a WON- 
DERLAND OF PLANTS — rare Be- 
gonias, Philodendrons, Tropicals, fine 
House Plants — a wide variety of well 
grown nursery stock. 

Corey Hogewoning, Prop. 



CURTIS COLEMAN CO. REALTORS 

SINCE 1913 

SALES LEASES REAL ESTATE LOANS PROPERTY MANAGEMENT 

Suite 2100, United States National Bank Bldg. 
Centre City, San Diego 1, Calif. 233-6557 



Patronize The Advertisers 
Who Keeep California Garden Groiving 



DRIFTWOOD from page 7 

tive objects from driftwood. 

If you have ever picked up a tiny 
stone, shell, or twig and have seen 
something more in the object than a 
diminutive stone, shell, or twig, you 
will enjoy this book. If you have been 
delighted by the tiny miniature ar- 
rangements in the many recent flower 
shows, you will enjoy the illustrations 
in this book. If you create miniatures 
or hope to create miniatures, you must 
consult Mrs. Schaffer's latest gem. 

Virginia Innis, 

President, County Civic Garden Club 



FUCHSIAS from page 26 

for moisture in October and after the 
cool nights and winds of November. 
Replacing good soil that has been 
washed away in long summer water- 
ing may save some old plants. Good 
autumn care of your plants as they are 
prepared for winter dormancy will 
pay off big in the garden in the spring. 
Fuchsia and Shade Garden groups have 
much to offer you in help and enjoy- 
ment of our hobby, and they will be 
glad to have you join them. 



ROSES from page 25 

blue skies and golden sunshine. Also 
if you have the bed ready for a certain 
number of roses now, in accordance 
with your garden plan, this might 
eliminate "impulse buying" in Janu- 
ary! That is, if you really want to 
eliminate it. 

Don't forget the North County Rose 
Show this month, October 28th and 
29th at Escondido, by the north County 
Rose Society. 



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30 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN